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Design and performance of an eight-pole resistive magnet for soft x-ray magnetic dichroism measurements
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View: Figures


Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Photographs of the eight-pole resistive magnet and its components: (a) One of the eight-coil pack/pole units, (b) view inside the magnet yoke with vacuum chamber and seven magnet poles installed, and (c) fully assembled system with water cooling and power leads connected.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

(a) Front and (b) back view of a sample holder allowing in-plane rotation of a single sample for temperatures between and .

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Calculated and measured current-field relation for magnetic fields along the principle axes , , and of the device. (a) Comparison of the experimental data obtained for steel poles (circles) and aluminum poles (squares) with results of model calculations using TOSCA (solid line) and a linear fit to the experimental data (dashed line), respectively. (b) Ratio of the theoretical and experimental values for steel poles (solid line) and aluminum poles (dashed line).

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Calculated and measured spatial variation of the magnetic field for field vectors oriented along the principle axes , , and of the device. The experimental data are shown by circles for steel poles and squares for aluminum poles. The corresponding calculated profiles are shown by solid lines for steel poles and dashed lines for aluminum poles. The field decrease with increasing distance from the magnet center along the field direction and the field increase with increasing distance perpendicular to the field orientation are in excellent agreement with the model calculations.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Comparison of the measured field-current dependence (solid line) with a linear fit of the data up to (dotted line) and an estimated relation obtained by summing the dipole fields generated by the four dipole pairs individually (dashed line). The field-current dependence for a single pole is indicated by a dashed-dotted line.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Ratio of the maximum field obtainable using the optimized model, , and the linear model, , for the same peak current. is the angle between the field vector and the plane and is the angle relative to the axis within the plane. The impact of the current optimization is most significant for field vectors along the direction of a dipole pair, i.e., and .

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Tb and spectra and XMD data measured at room temperature and in normal incidence from a Terfenol sample in transmission geometry. (a) XA spectra. (b) XMCD asymmetry measured with elliptically polarized radiation and point-by-point reversal of a field oriented along the sample normal. (c) XMLD asymmetry measured with linearly polarized x rays and point-by-point reversal of the magnetic field within the sample plane, i.e., the difference of spectra obtained with a field oriented parallel and perpendicular to the polarization direction normalized to their sum is shown.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

XA spectrum, XMCD spectrum, and element specific hystersis loops for a trilayer sample of 5 monolayers (ML) Co/10 ML Fe/18 ML Ni on a Cu(100) substrate. (a) XA data. (b) XMCD asymmetry spectrum measured with elliptically polarized radiation and point-by-point reversal of the magnetic field of . (c) Element-specific loops with the magnetic field parallel to the x-ray beam, i.e., at 30° relative to the sample surface. The Ni magnetization has an easy axis out of plane while the Co easy axis is in the plane of the sample. The magnetic coupling of Ni and Co through the intermediate 10 ML Fe layer is antiferromagnetic leading to a complex magnetization reversal for magnetic fields applied in the sample plane. (d) Element-specific loops measured at normal incidence with the magnetic field at 30° relative to the sample surface, representing the out-of-plane component of the moments.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

total fluorescence yield data of a sample measured at room temperature at an angle of x-ray incidence of 5° to the sample normal with a diode at 5° to the sample surface. (a) The fluorescence spectrum measured with linear polarized radiation is clearly influenced by saturation effects as expected for concentrated samples. (b) The XMCD asymmetry was obtained with external fields of applied along the x-ray beam.


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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Design and performance of an eight-pole resistive magnet for soft x-ray magnetic dichroism measurements