banner image
No data available.
Please log in to see this content.
You have no subscription access to this content.
No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
Table-top water window transmission x-ray microscopy: Review of the key issues, and conceptual design of an instrument for biology
Rent this article for


Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Differential transmission of a layer of average proteins ( C, 50% H, 8% O, 8% N), lipids ( C, 64% H, 4% O), carbohydrates ( C, 50% H, 25% O), replacing the same thickness of water: e.g. , a thick drop of lipid transmits 15% less than the water it replaces. The contrast between such a drop and the surrounding water will be 15%, and the attenuation length in water is .

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Average diffraction limited resolution at , attainable in 3D tomographic images as a function of sample thickness.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Absorption coefficients of elements 1–29 in a solid or liquid phase at , showing the best candidates for an emitting oxide target.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Energy spectrum of the radiation emitted by a BeO target under a electron beam (uncorrected for detector sensitivity, strongly decreasing above ). The reflectivity of a nickel surface ( rms roughness) is also plotted.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Proposed layout of the condenser mirror and microscope.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Encircled fraction of the total power emitted by a gaussian source ( FWHM), in the image plane of a long ellipsoidal mirror for different slope errors randomly distributed along the mirror surface. Source to image distance , central diameter , and input aperture from the source.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Comparison of the thickness to resolution ratio for several 3D imaging techniques for biology. WW-TXM allows 3D imaging of thick samples. Dashed lines show some typical lateral resolutions.


Generic image for table
Generic image for table
Table I.

Compared absorption of soft x-rays by gold and a few materials that may be obtained in nm size crystals and functionalized to make specific probes (quantum dots).

Generic image for table
Table II.

Calculated values of the critical parameters of a WW-TXM for a few standard cases. The underlying assumptions are: , 100% detector efficiency, 10% ZP efficiency, photon energy, 6% transmission object ( thick cell with 20% carbon content), source object distance , rms slope errors on the mirror.


Article metrics loading...


Full text loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Table-top water window transmission x-ray microscopy: Review of the key issues, and conceptual design of an instrument for biology