Volume 77, Issue 1, January 2006
Index of content:
- GRAVITY; GEOPHYSICS; ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS
System for detecting acoustic emissions in multianvil experiments: Application to deep seismicity in the Earth77(2006); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.2148994View Description Hide Description
One of the major goals in the experimental study of deep earthquakes is to identify slip instabilities at high pressure and high temperature (HPHT) that might be responsible for the occurrence of earthquakes. Detecting acoustic emissions from a specimen during faulting provides unique constraints on the instability process. There are few experimental studies reporting acoustic emissions under HPHT conditions, due to technical challenges. And those studies have used only one or at most two acoustic sensors during the experiments. Such techniques preclude the accurate location of the acoustic emission source region and thus the ability to distinguish real signal from noise that may be coming from outside the sample. We have developed a system for detecting acoustic emissions at HPHT. Here we present a four-channel acoustic emission detecting system working in the HPHT octahedral multianvil apparatus. Each channel has high resolution (12 bits) and a sampling rate of 30 MHz. In experiments at the pressures up to 6 GPa and temperatures up to 770 °C, we have observed acoustic emissions under various conditions. Analyzing these signals, we are able to show that this system permits us to distinguish between signal and noise, locate the source of the acoustic emission, and obtain reliable data on the radiation pattern. This system has greatly improved our ability to study faulting instabilities under high pressure and high temperature.
Lightweight dew-/frost-point hygrometer based on a surface-acoustic-wave sensor for balloon-borne atmospheric water vapor profile sounding77(2006); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.2140275View Description Hide Description
The design of a very lightweight dew-/frost-point hygrometer for balloon-borne atmospheric water vapor profiling is described. The instrument is based on a surface-acoustic-wave sensor. The low instrument weight is a key feature, allowing flights on meteorological balloons which brings many more flight opportunities. The hygrometer shows consistently good performance in the troposphere and while water vapor measurements near the tropopause and in the stratosphere are possible with the current instrument, the long-time response in these regions hampers realistic measurements. The excellent intrinsic sensitivity of the surface-acoustic-wave sensor should permit considerable improvement in the hygrometer performance in the very dry regions of the atmosphere.