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Development of a novel bioreactor to apply shear stress and tensile strain simultaneously to cell monolayers
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10.1063/1.2356857
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    Affiliations:
    1 National Centre for Biomedical Engineering Science, National University of Ireland, Galway, University Road, Galway, Ireland and Department of Mechanical and Biomedical Engineering, National University of Ireland, Galway, University Road, Galway, Ireland
    2 School of Engineering, Institute of Technology, Sligo, Ballinode, Sligo, Ireland
    3 National Centre for Biomedical Engineering Science, National University of Ireland, Galway, University Road, Galway, Ireland and Department of Mechanical and Biomedical Engineering, National University of Ireland, Galway, University Road, Galway, Ireland
    4 National Centre for Biomedical Engineering Science, National University of Ireland, Galway, University Road, Galway, Ireland
    a) Electronic mail: liam.breen@nuigalway.ie
    b) Electronic mail: peter.mchugh@nuigalway.ie
    c) Electronic mail: mccormack.brendan@itsligo.ie
    d) Electronic mail: muir.gordon@itsligo.ie
    e) Electronic mail: nathan.quinlan@nuigalway.ie
    f) Electronic mail: kevin.heraty@nuigalway.ie
    g) Author to whom correspondence should be addressed; FAX: +353 (0)91 494596; electronic mail: bruce.murphy@nuigalway.ie
    Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 104301 (2006); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.2356857
/content/aip/journal/rsi/77/10/10.1063/1.2356857
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/rsi/77/10/10.1063/1.2356857

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

A cross sectional view of a cone and plate rheometer. The cone rotates about the axis and applies a WSS to the plate surface (cultured ECs) via the rotating fluid between the cone and plate.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

A schematic of the ten cellular substrates. Eight of the substrates (1–8) are exposed to WSS and a range of THS. The six double sided arrows indicate the substrate stretch directions. Two control substrates (9 and 10) are contained in two compartments in the main container of the bioreactor submerged in the same media as all the other cellular samples, but substrates 9 and 10 are subjected to no mechanical stimuli.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

(A) A schematic of the bioreactor design. A cable and pulley system controls the strain applied to each of the six flexible silicone substrates. The variance in the pulleys tier diameters creates three different magnitudes of cable linear displacement and cellular substrate strain magnitude. (B) A picture of the bioreactor placed inside an incubator. The incubator controls the testing temperature, humidity, and atmosphere’s levels.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Schematic diagram of the fluid region present between the plate and cone surfaces. The cone has a flattened tip with a diameter of . The volume also includes the two sets of four indents; a set at radial position ( from the plate center point) and the second set placed at a radial position ( from the center point). Model (B), with the indent at , and model (C), with the indent at , are 45° slices of the entire model.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

This image shows the control volume (the region in which the flow is modeled) to mesh all the CFD models. This control volume is represented as an inflation boundary layer. In all three models, the regions adjacent to the plate and indent surfaces were meshed with fine prismatic elements and the remaining volume was meshed with tetrahedral elements. An inflation boundary (five layers, 1.2 expansion factor, and a first layer height of ) was used to generate this mesh. Periodic boundary conditions (axisymmetry about the axis) were also applied to the inlet and outlet surfaces.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

(a) The computed WSS present on the plate and inner plane ( square) of model (B). The cone surface was given a constant angular velocity of about the axis. By reducing the observation region , the flow disturbances (edge effects) have been removed and the WSS is more consistent throughout the remaining area, as shown in (b).

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Plot of WSS values vs angular velocity for model (A) (plate surface WSS), the indent inner plane area averaged WSS for both models (B) and (C), and the analytical WSS solution for a range of cone angular velocities.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

(Color online) This image shows a monolayer of HUVECs after in the bioreactor seeded on a fibronectin coated silicone substrate. The cells were H&E stained and photographed at magnification.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

(Color online) Three images of a monolayer of HUVECs, which were grown on fibronectin coated silicone substrates. The cells were exposed to a low steady WSS and cyclical THS (0–12)%. The cells were H&E stained and photographed at three different magnifications (, , and ). Note that the white and black arrows indicate the THS and WSS directions, respectively.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table I.

Mechanical stimulus applied to each substrate (see Fig. 2).

Generic image for table
Table II.

A list of materials used in the bioreactor. All the materials are inert and nontoxic.

Generic image for table
Table III.

Alamar Blue assay results for cellular samples placed in the bioreactor for time periods up to ; the data are presented as a mean percentage of three tests and the standard deviation of these tests.

Generic image for table
Table IV.

Measurement of growth medium levels during the strain experiment.

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/content/aip/journal/rsi/77/10/10.1063/1.2356857
2006-10-09
2014-04-18
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Development of a novel bioreactor to apply shear stress and tensile strain simultaneously to cell monolayers
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/rsi/77/10/10.1063/1.2356857
10.1063/1.2356857
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