(Color online) Diagram showing the wide range of implant energy and beam current required to meet the needs of the semiconductor industry. The infusion range was added by Poate and Rubin. (Ref. 8).
The three basic design concepts from which almost all designs have evolved. (a) Postacceleration analysis. (b) Analysis before acceleration. (c) Extraction energy only with the option of postanalysis deceleration.
Cross sectional view of a Bernas source with indirectly heated cathode and vaporizer.
(Color online) Example of a plasma flood gun with cusp field confined plasma (Ref. 27) (Courtesy of SEN Corporation).
electrostatic scan system with dc deflection to avoid neutral beam contamination.
Schematic of two common hybrid scan systems combining an electrostatic scan with (a) a collimating electrostatic lens (Ref. 28) or (b) a tapered dipole magnet (Ref. 29).
(Color online) The optical elements that produce a uniform slit beam across a wafer. The source slit lies in the plane of the analyzer poles. By applying the appropriate voltages and to the enclosures, the beam can be decelerated.
The general mechanical arrangement of a disk scan mechanism. Early versions of this type of target chamber were made by Western Electric (Ref. 32) and IBM (Ref. 33).
(Color online) Photograph of a disk used in a typical high current implanter.
Layout of a two dimensional mechanical scanning system employing air bearings.
An example of a hybrid scan medium current implanter (Ref. 43) (Courtesy of Nissin Corporation).
A schematic of a high current ion implanter with mechanical scan and single wafer processing (Ref. 31).
(Color online) Schematic of a terminal voltage tandem implanter with a hybrid scan to make the beam parallel for single wafer processing (Ref. 47) (Courtesy of VSEA).
Three dimensional schematic of a megavolt ion implanter employing a linac capable of accelerating a wide mass range of ions from to several MeV (Courtesy Axcelis Corp).
(Color online) An implanter designed to implant large glass panels by scanning them through a wide beam (Courtesy of SEN Corporation).
(Color online) A layout of a ionized cluster beam apparatus. The clusters emerging through the skimmer are ionized and accelerated to ground potential.
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