Index of content:
Volume 77, Issue 11, November 2006
- CONDENSED MATTER; MATERIALS
77(2006); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.2364134View Description Hide Description
A low cost sample cell for powderdiffraction at high pressure and temperature that employs either sapphire or steel pressure tubes is described. The cell can be assembled rapidly, facilitating the study of chemically reacting systems, and it provides good control of both pressure and temperature in a regimen where diamond anvil cells and multianvil apparatus cannot be used. The design provides a relatively large sample volume making it suitable for the study of quite large grain size materials, such as hydrating cement slurries. However, relatively high energy x rays are needed to penetrate the pressure tube.
77(2006); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.2336753View Description Hide Description
By changing from the metallic foil of the Asay foil diagnostic, which can detect ejecta from a shocked surface, to a lithium fluoride (LiF) or polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) window, it is possible to detect multiple spall layers and interlayer rubble. Past experiments to demonstrate this diagnostic have used high explosives (HEs) to shock metals to produce multiple spall layers. Because the exact characteristics of HE-induced spall layers cannot be predetermined, two issues exist in the quantitative interpretation of the data. First, to what level of fidelity is the Asay window method capable of providing quantitative information about spall layers, possibly separated by rubble, and second, contingent on the first, can an analytic technique be developed to convert the data to a meaningful description of spall from a given experiment? In this article, we address the first issue. A layered projectile fired from a gas gun was used to test the new diagnostic’s accuracy and repeatability. We impacted a LiF or PMMA window viewed by a velocityinterferometer system for any reflector (VISAR) probe with a projectile consisting of four thin stainless steel disks spaced apart with either vacuum or polyethylene. The window/surface interface velocitymeasured with a VISAR probe was compared with calculations. The good agreement observed between the adjusted calculation and the measured data indicates that, in principle and given enough prior information, it is possible to use the Asay window data to model a density distribution from spalled material with simple hydrodynamic models and only simple adjustments to nominal predictions.