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High-reflectivity multilayer condenser for compact soft x-ray microscopy
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Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Experimental arrangement of the compact x-ray microscope with a normal-incidence multilayer condenser mirror.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Calculated reflectivity for multilayers with a multilayer period of and a ratio of Cr thickness to total bilayer thickness , optimized for an incident angle of 1.5°. (a) Reflectivity of the multilayers depending on the number of bilayers. (b) Reflectivity for a stack of 300 bilayers depending on the roughness.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Comparison between the calculated lateral thickness distribution using a mask during the deposition process and the best experimentally achieved one (measured by the Bruker diffractometer). To illustrate the effect of the mask the thickness distribution without the mask is shown.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Emission spectrum of the methanol-jet laser-plasma source in the water window and the reflectivity of the multilayer mirror 2, matching the emission line (source data from Ref. 19).

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Soft x-ray measurements of mirror 2. (a) Soft x-ray reflectivity for different measurement points on the mirror, measured by the PTB reflectometer at BESSY II. The position of the emission line at is marked (dashed line). (b) Reflected x-ray radiation detected on the CCD camera. The shadows in the image are due to the nozzle and the central stop.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Image of a Siemens star, taken by the compact x-ray microscope with magnification and a pixel element size of . The exposure time is .


Generic image for table
Table I.

Results of the hard and soft x-ray measurements for three multilayer mirrors. Hard x-ray measurements [small angle x-ray reflection (SAXR) measurements] were performed using a Bruker D5005 diffractometer operated with radiation . Soft x-ray measurements were done at the PTB reflectometer at BESSY II.


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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: High-reflectivity Cr∕Sc multilayer condenser for compact soft x-ray microscopy