A diagram of PR-AFM: is the wheatstone bridge bias. VR is a variable resistor for balancing the bridge circuit. The cantilever deflection is proportional to the resistance change of the piezoresistor on a cantilever.
Illustration of a typical commercial cantilever plate. Labels A, B, and GND correspond to the labels in Fig. 1.
Schematics of the instruments: (1) end disk of insertion, (2) electrical hookup, (3) wires (silver-cored, Teflon-coated wires; for signal from the cantilever, coaxial-shielded wire used), (4) ceiling disk, (5) supporting column, (6) damping springs, (7) cantilever holder mount, (8) body of inertial coarse actuator, (9) moving shaft covered with sapphire plates (moves vertical, in illustration), (10) stacked piezolegs (four of six illustrated), (11) tube piezoscanner (enlarged part), (12) spring electrodes, (13) cantilever holder, (14) piezoresonator, (15) cantilever plate, (16) piezoresistive cantilever, (17) sample, and (18) sample holder (pressing plate also illustrated).
The AFM topographic images in contact mode at (a) room temperature and (b) liquid-He temperature, . The sample is a specially patterned silicon wafer for use in multiprobe positioning. (a) At room temperature, constant force of , ; (b) at liquid-He temperature, , constant force of , .
AFM topographic image of clean surface at liquid-He temperature, : resonance frequency of , amplitude of , , and scan size of .
AFM topographic image of Si(100) clean surface with and surface superstructures at liquid-He temperature, : resonance frequency of , amplitude of , , and scan size of .
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