Shields for cathode spot control, showing the cathode C, (a) passive border PB, and (b) floating shield FS.
Configurations for magnetically controlling cathode spot motion and location showing magnetic-field lines , acute angle between the field lines and the cathode surface, and the velocity vector of the cathode spot. (a) Race track, (b) conical cathode in axial magnetic field, (c) dished cathode in axial magnetic field, and (d) central cathode rod (showing the current flow direct I in the cathode). (a)–(c) include top and side views and an enlargement of the side view for better visibility of the acute angle .
(a) Schematic diagram of heat flow in an indirectly cooled cathode and equivalent electrical circuit for the heat flow. The roughness of the interface between the substrate holder and the substrate is exaggerated in the diagram. (b) Equivalent electrical circuit for calculating the heat flow, where is the net thermal power transferred by the arc to the cathode, is the thermal resistance of the cathode, is the thermal resistance of the cathode-cathode holder interface (which generally depends on the surface condition of both bodies and the clamping force), is the thermal resistance of the cathode holder, is the thermal resistance of the holder-water interface (which depends on the flow conditions), and is the input water temperature.
MP filter configurations showing the cathode C, obstacle O, and substrate S, and magnetic-field lines are indicated by arrows. The plasma flows along the field lines [except in configuration (n)]. In most cases the field coils or magnets are omitted for simplicity; where shown, the coil current flow direction is indicated. (a) Straight duct, (b) straight duct with axial obstacle and diverging-converging axial field, (c) magnetic island, (d) Venetian blind—current flow in the vanes is indicated, (e) straight duct with offset substrate and bent field, (f) torus, (g) knee, (h) dome, (i) open torus,(j) plasma magnetically bent between two flanges of chamber, (k) S, (l) twist, (m) axial to radial flow conversion, and (n) Hall stratum (HS).
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