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Component-resolved determination of the magnetization by magnetization-induced optical second-harmonic generation
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View: Figures


Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Geometries for MSHG. (a) Longitudinal configuration in which lies parallel to the plane of incidence and (b) transverse configuration, with perpendicular to the plane of incidence.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Magnetization-induced second-harmonic generation at each interface: air-tantalum, tantalum-Permalloy, and Permalloy-nonmagnet.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Polarization of the second-harmonic generated light as a function of the magnetization state. In the case of a longitudinal magnetization, the second-harmonic polarization rotates (dotted and dashed curves) with respect to the incident polarization , as predicted by Eq. (6). Transverse magnetization changes the intensity (the dash-dotted and solid curves).

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

The experimental configuration used to probe the two in-plane components of . The average intensity is measured at the photomultiplier tube (PMT). The polarization rotation is determined by modulation with a photoelastic modulator and measurement of the modulation signal by means of a lock-in amplifier. Note that in this figure the sample is rotated by 90° to show the various magnetization directions.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

(Color online) The change in intensity is plotted as a function of the photoelastic modulator retardation. The magnetization is switched between the two saturated states of ( and ).

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Two hard-axis dependencies as measured by MSHG, at which a prior calibration was performed to calculate the in-plane magnetization components from the data for a sample with low contrast and large contrast (inset). The low contrast measurements were performed on a multilayer on glass, where the numbers indicate the individual layer thickness in nanometer. The high contrast measurements were performed on a multilayer on sapphire. Both measurements were done by probing through the substrates.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Experimental pump-probe setup. The magnetic pulse field is generated by an electronic pulse generator. The time delay between pump and probe is controlled by a delay generator.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

(a) Calibrated in-plane vector components of the magnetization motion after excitation with a steplike magnetic field pulse. The bias field was . (b) Reconstruction of the excitation angle (circles) and absolute value (squares) of the magnetization from the two in-plane components shown in (a).


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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Component-resolved determination of the magnetization by magnetization-induced optical second-harmonic generation