5-ch.NPA layout: (1) TCV vacuum chamber, (2) plasma, (3) NPA duct, (4) NPA, and (5) view line .
Scheme of the five-channel energy analyzer: (1) vacuum gate, (2) atom flux emitted by plasma, (3) analyzer inlet slit, (4) calibration thermal ion source, (5) inlet and outlet slits of the stripping cell, (6) vacuum gauges, (7) analyzing condenser, (8) Faraday cage for neutrals, (9) channel condensers, (10) electron multipliers, (11) input slits of energy channels, (12) turbo molecular pumps, (13) ion trajectories, (14) stripping cell, (15) cleaning condenser, (16) fore vacuum pump, and (17) nitrogen injection in stripping cell.
Scheme of CNPA: (1) stripping and acceleration systems, (2) stripping foil, (3) analyzing magnet, (4) Hall probe, (5) analyzing electrostatic condenser, (6) shielding mask at the entrance to the detectors, (7) detectors, atomic flux emitted by plasma, and secondary ions.
CNPA layout on TCV: (1) compact NPA, (2) entrance diaphragm , (3) calibration source of alkali ions, (4) bellow, (5) electrical break, (6) inlet diaphragm unit of collimator, (7) bypass for pumping from the atmosphere pressure and letting to air, (8) turbomolecular pump, (9) CNPA-TCV valve, (10) CNPA rotation point (bellow), (11) full-range vacuum gauge, (12) CNPA horizontal platform, (13) vertical platform, (14) fixed support, (15) DNB duct, (16) TCV plasma axis, (17) TCV port, (18) TCV vacuum vessel, (19) CNPA view cone, and (20) DNB path line.
Energy profiles (instrumental functions) for deuterium detector array (ch. 12–28) in setup: (●)—calibration and (––)—Gaussian fit from modeling.
Instrumental function for 18th CNPA channel (deuterium in setup 1): (●)—calibration, (—)—model with , , and , and (FWHM)—.
Energy resolutions of the CNPA channels for deuterium array (deuterium in setup 1): (●)— (scattering), ◇— (finite detector size), and ▿—FWHM.
Energy resolutions of the CNPA channels: ▴—hydrogen detector array in setup, ●—deuterium detector array in setup, ▾—deuterium detector array in setup, ◇—helium detector array in setup, close markers—experimental calibration, and open markers—evaluated with code.
Detection efficiencies: ▴—hydrogen detector array in setup, ●—deuterium detector array in setup, ▾—deuterium detector array in setup, and ◆—helium detector array in setup.
The thermal source of alkali ions.
Differential spectrum of pulse heights from CEM detectors of CNPA.
Measurement of channel energy characteristics with calibration source: (a) ion beam energy scan at and (b) analyzing condenser voltage scan at .
(Color) Energy distribution of particles detected in low energy (14th) CNPA channel for : , , , and (all in keV).
(Color) Energy distribution of particles detected in low energy (18th) CNPA channel for : , , , and (all in keV).
Correction of channel mean energy (A) and energy resolutions (B) for the deuterium array of the CNPA in setup.
(Color) Ion temperature measurement in TCV discharge No. 27114 by 5-ch.NPA: (a) with fast voltage sweeping applied to high voltage divider , (b) countrates from NPA, (c) ion temperature with temporal resolution of for .
(Color) Charge exchange spectrum in No. 27114 from 5-ch.NPA: for . Colors correspond to different channels.
(Color) NPA measurements with modulated DNB injection: (a) beam current, (b) 5-ch.NPA counting traces, and CNPA counting traces for (c) hydrogen and (d) deuterium.
(Color) 5-ch.NPA CX spectra with and without DNB.
(Color) CNPA CX spectra for hydrogen and deuterium with and without DNB; black line—Poisson statistics limit.
(Color) TCV plasma discharge with H puff: (a) plasma current and line integrated density , (b) rate of H and D gas injections, and CNPA counting rates for low energy deuterium (c) and hydrogen (d) channels.
(Color) H and D CX spectra before H-gas puff (experiment and DOUBLE-TCV simulation with )
(Color) CX spectra (a) and density ratio (b) of hydrogen population generated by H puff during and after gas injection .
Calibration of the NPA energy resolution.
Characteristics of CEM KBL detectors.
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