Schematic of the experimental arrangement.
(a) Cross-sectional view of the experimental chamber (not to scale); (b) enlarged view of a fixed thin foil frame in the multiple-foil holder.
Arrangement for the measurement of the minimum distance between the two foils. FF indicates the fixed foil, MF the movable foil, the capacitance due to the two foils, and the capacitance of the dc filtering capacitor.
Graph of vs the distance between the two foils.
Theoretical transition energies (not to scale) and lifetimes (Refs. 8–10) for Li-like and He-like titanium levels of interest to this work.
A delayed x-ray spectrum for titanium beam incident on the carbon foil.
X-ray intensity as a function of the distance between the two foils. Various carbon foils of thicknesses of 0, 4, 8, and were used as second foils. These foils correspond to 0, 1, 2, or 3 collisions in the second foil with beam. Foil thickness of implies that the experiment was done with single-foil target only (i.e., no second foil). Lifetime measurements performed with the single foil up to showed clearly two exponents. But the curve had been curtailed at as the two-foil experiments were not extended up to that. Here the distance of implies that the minimum distance between the second foil and detector was about . The solid lines are to guide the eyes only.
Comparison of lifetimes (ps) for the He-like and Li-like levels obtained from combined beam-single-foil and beam-two-foil experiments.
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