Volume 78, Issue 11, November 2007
Index of content:
studies" title="Invited Article: An improved double-toroidal spectrometer for gas phase studies" />
A new spectrometer is described for measuring the momentum distributions of scatteredelectrons arising from electron-atom and electron-molecule ionization experiments. It incorporates and builds on elements from a number of previous designs, namely, a source of polarized electrons and two high-efficiency electrostaticelectron energy analyzers. The analyzers each comprise a seven-element retarding-electrostatic lens system, four toroidal-sector electrodes, and a fast position-and-time-sensitive two-dimensional delay-line detector. Results are presented for the electron-impact-induced ionization of helium and the elastic scattering of electrons from argon and helium which demonstrate that high levels of momentum resolution and data-collection efficiency are achieved. Problematic aspects regarding variations in collection efficiency over the accepted momentum phase space are addressed and a methodology for their correction presented. Principles behind the present design and previous designs for electrostaticanalyzers based around electrodes of toroidal-sector geometry are discussed and a framework is provided for optimizing future devices.
- GRAVITY; GEOPHYSICS; ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS
78(2007); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.2813343View Description Hide Description
The bulk motion of the neutral gas at altitudes between about 200 and is an important factor in predicting the onset of plasma instabilities that are known to distort and/or disrupt high frequency radio communications. These neutral winds have historically been quite difficult to measure, especially from a moving spacecraft. A new space science instrument called the ram wind sensor has been developed to measure the component of the neutral gas velocity that lies along the orbit track of a satellite in low Earth orbit. Laboratory tests of an engineering model of the instrument have been carried out using a supersonic neutral argon beam, in order to validate the measurement concept. The results show that the technique is viable for measurements of neutral flow velocities in future satellite missions.