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KMC-1: A high resolution and high flux soft x-ray beamline at BESSY
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Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

(Color online) Bending magnet KMC-1 double crystal monochromator beamline with high resolution (crystal backscattering) option. [Si (311) is not installed permanently.]

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

(Color online) BESSY II vertical beam divergence (with and without premirror collimation) and crystal acceptances for InSb, Si (111), Si (311), and Si (422) orientations. At low energies the Darwin width exceeds the beam divergence and therefore crystal limited resolution is possible here. The kinks in the InSb curve around are due to the -absorption edges of In and Sb,

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

(Color online) Diagnostic and beam shaping and monitoring tools in the Io section.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

(Color online) Photon flux of the InSb, Si (111), and Si (422) crystals determined with a GaAsP photodiode.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

(Color online) Energy resolution of all monochromator crystals determined by Bragg reflection on a Si (333) photodiode in normal incidence at .

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

(Color online) Photoelectron spectra of Au and Au core levels obtained using the KMC-1 Si (111) crystal tuned to photon energy. Spectrometer pass energy was , and entrance slit .

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

(Color online) Calculated (small points and lines) and experimentally determined (solid circles, solid squares) resolving power of the KMC-1 monochromator crystals InSb (111), and Si with (111), (311), and (422) orientations. Si (333) and Si (444) correspond to higher order radiation. The solid circles have been measured by the photocurrent absorption drop (FWHM) in a single-crystalline Si photodiode with and (400) orientation operated in back reflection (see Fig. 5). [Si (311) is not installed permanently.]

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

(Color online) Real (a) and ray tracing (b) image of the BESSY II electron beam downstream the KMC-1 beamline. The FWHM focus size is , the beam divergence is .

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

(Color online) Higher order crystal reflections of Si (111) at a photon energy setting of for a parallel setting of both crystals (full curve), and for the detuning case (dotted curve). Note that the second order reflection is forbidden. Spectra were obtained with an energy-dispersive Ge(Li) detector. The data are not normalized to the detector efficiency.

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

(Color online) Calculated photon flux at the Si high order crystal reflections for a photon energy setting of as function of the crystal’s detuning angle.

Image of FIG. 11.
FIG. 11.

(Color online) (A) Schematic of the KMC-1 beamline horizontal feedback loop. (B) PSD-position signal for feedback on (blue) and off (red) and piezoactuator voltage (green). (C) Intensity signal after PSD measured with ionization chamber. Horizontal position stability is better than . The nonlinear travel ranges and of the second crystal during energy scan is indicated in (b), top scale.

Image of FIG. 12.
FIG. 12.

(Color online) EXAFS obtained in transmission mode on Mn edge on a diluted Mn sample. The Mn pre-edge peak and an Fe foil as reference in front of the I1 ionization chamber deliver an energy offset of better than . Energy stability is better than . Measuring time/energy point was , total accumulation time is .

Image of FIG. 13.
FIG. 13.

The oxygen of the atmosphere is produced by water oxidation at the manganese complex of photosystem II of green plants. Distinct structural motifs of the tetranuclear metal center are accessible by x-ray absorption spectroscopy at the Mn edge. EXAFS analysis [(A) and (B)] provides the interatomic distances (Mn–O and Mn–Mn) with high precision . The XANES spectrum (C) is indicative of the Mn oxidation state and the local nuclear geometry and electronic structure.

Image of FIG. 14.
FIG. 14.

X-ray absorption spectra in fluorescence yield mode at the Ti edge [Fig. 14(a)] and at the Si edge [Fig. 14(b)] for several TiSiN coatings with different Si contents. Additionally, Si -edge spectra for Si, , and are shown for reference.

Image of FIG. 15.
FIG. 15.

(Color online) HIKE overview spectra obtained at photon energies (bottom to top curves) from a CIGS film with Zn(O, S) buffer overlayer (Ref. 45).

Image of FIG. 16.
FIG. 16.

(Color online) The Cu signal as measured at excitation energy during the heating of a copper containing indium sulfide layer. At a temperature of the copper content increases and at this temperature, solar cell performance is known to degrade (Ref. 47).


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Table I.

Source characteristics of the BESSY II bending magnets.

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Table II.

Mirror parameters.

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Table III.

DCM parameters.

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Table IV.

Back reflection photodiodes (Ref. 23 and 24).

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Table V.

Fitted resolution data for the Au data of Fig. 6.


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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: KMC-1: A high resolution and high flux soft x-ray beamline at BESSY