Block diagram of the TOF measurement system.
Schematic diagram of the constant fraction timing discriminator and a simplified pulse diagram showing the effect of offset voltage on the timing moment.
Walk error of the TOF measurement system.
Block diagram of the TDC.
Drift of the TOF measurement system as a function of time and device temperature.
Transmission and reflection losses of a sensor fiber.
Operating principle of the bridge measurement using the TOF measurement device.
Photographs of the TOF sensor.
Strain in the bridge deck under traffic loading. TOF measurement curve.
Thermal elongation of the bridge deck. Measurement curves of TOF and FBG sensors and calculated model.
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