A schematic diagram of impact charging test rig. Dimensions of major parts are as follows: glass tube outer diameter (o.d.), in length; FC1 inner cylinder inner dimeter (i.d.), o.d. in length, outer cylinder o.d. at maximum, in length; FC2 inner cage o.d., in height, outer cylinder o.d., height; target is a triangular prism made of a stainless steel with an impact surface , for example, of impact angle 30°. PI stands for a pressure indicator, and the transducer is basically an analog-to-digital (A/D) converter, which digitize an analog output from the photodetector for the PC.
A schematic circuit diagram of the preamplifier for the Faraday cages. For FC1, is and is . For FC2, is and is replaced by a CMOS analog switch.
Typical signals from the Faraday cages recorded on an oscilloscope. (a) No target in FC2; (b) a stainless steel target in FC2.
An example of the signals from the Faraday cages when a single -lactose particle impacts the stainless steel target.
Example results of impact charging test with sugar granules (a) and glass beads (b): particle size is , vacuum is against atmospheric pressure, and impact angle is 30° with respect to a target surface.
Schematic illustration of relationship between impact charge and initial charge based on the results of the sugar granules.
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