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Noncontact simultaneous dual wavelength photoplethysmography: A further step toward noncontact pulse oximetry
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Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Illustration of noncontact dual wavelength PPG system, depicting illumination and imaging geometry, relative timing of events (upper inset), and arrangement of LED array (lower inset).

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Signal acquisition and image processing.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Illustration of illumination and imaging positions (A) and sample frame from the sequence (B). The white box encloses an area of —the time varying mean value of which is plotted in Fig. 4.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Comparison of noncontact PPG signals and conventional PPG signal.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Comparison of Fourier spectra of noncontact and conventional PPG signals.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Scatter plot showing noncontact device’s measurement of heart rate at (circles) and (crosses), vs the contact device’s measurement, for each subject. Also shown is the line , where both devices are in perfect agreement about the measurement.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Bland-Altman (mean vs difference) plot, showing the average of the heart rate measurements by the contact and noncontact devices, vs the difference between their measurements, for each subject. (The circles indicate measurement at , and the crosses at .) Also plotted are lines indicating the mean of the differences and standard deviations about the mean.


Generic image for table
Table I.

Simulated percentage error in measurement of by integrative sampling (camera based) compared to sample-and-hold (contact method). Results pertain to a synthetic contact signal sampled at sample-and-hold method and the camera derived version of that signal at .


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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Noncontact simultaneous dual wavelength photoplethysmography: A further step toward noncontact pulse oximetry