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Volume 78, Issue 5, May 2007
Photoacoustic (PA) infrared spectroscopy enables the characterization of a wide variety of materials, affording the spectroscopist several advantages over more traditional infrared methods. While PA spectra are readily acquired using commercial instrumentation, the quality of the data can be improved substantially through the use of specialized numerical and experimental procedures. Two of these methods are the subject of this review. Specifically, this article describes (a) linearization of PA infrared spectra, a calculation that incorporates phase and amplitude information to extend the range of linearity for strongly absorbing samples, and (b) lock-in and digital signal-recovery procedures in step-scan phase-modulation PA infrared spectroscopy. Linearization yields significant improvement in band definition, especially in the low-wavenumber region. This numerical method succeeds in situations where the PA phase of the sample is less than that of the reference (carbon black). When this criterion is not met initially, the sample or reference interferograms can be manipulated prior to the calculation. The steps involved in linearization are illustrated in detail and approximations are discussed. Lock-in demodulation of the step-scan phase-modulation signal is compared to digital (software) demodulation in this study; the lock-in technique is found to be superior in several cases. The imaginary interferograms in these experiments sometimes lack a strong central feature, a situation that necessitates the application of less commonly used methods for phase correction and spectrum calculation. These methods, which are available in commercial software, include two-quadrant and stored-phase corrections. The PA phase spectrum resembles amplitude and absorption spectra when real and imaginary PA spectra are correctly calculated.
- GRAVITY; GEOPHYSICS; ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS
Recording and interpretation/analysis of tilt signals with five ASKANIA borehole tiltmeters at the KTB78(2007); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.2736506View Description Hide Description
In June 2003, a large scale injection experiment started at the Continental Deep Drilling site (KTB) in Germany. A tiltmeter array was installed which consisted of five high resolution borehole tiltmeters of the ASKANIA type, also equipped with three dimensional seismometers. For the next , were injected into the KTB pilot borehole deep. The average injection rate was approximately . The research objective was to observe and to analyzedeformation caused by the injection into the upper crust at the kilometer range. A new data acquisition system was developed by Geo-Research Center Potsdam (GFZ) to master the expected huge amount of seismic and tilt data. Furthermore, it was necessary to develop a new preprocessing software called PREANALYSE for long-period time series. This software includes different useful functions, such as step and spike correction, interpolation, filtering, and spectral analysis. This worldwide unique installation offers the excellent opportunity of the separation of signals due to injection and due to environment by correlation of the data of the five stations with the ground water table and meteorological data.