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Volume 78, Issue 6, June 2007
Analysis of the Raman Stokes peak position and its shift has been frequently used to estimate either temperature or stress in microelectronics and microelectromechanical systemdevices. However, if both fields are evolving simultaneously, the Stokes shift represents a convolution of these effects, making it difficult to measure either quantity accurately. By using the relative independence of the Stokes linewidth to applied stress, it is possible to deconvolve the signal into an estimation of both temperature and stress. Using this property, a method is presented whereby the temperature and stress were simultaneously measured in doped polysilicon microheaters. A data collection and analysis method was developed to reduce the uncertainty in the measured stresses resulting in an accuracy of for an average applied stress of and temperature of . Measurement results were compared to three-dimensional finite-element analysis of the microheaters and were shown to be in excellent agreement. This analysis shows that Raman spectroscopy has the potential to measure both evolving temperature and stress fields in devices using a single optical measurement.
78(2007); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.2743273View Description Hide Description
This work describes a new system using real time spectroscopic ellipsometer with simultaneous electrochemical and electrochemicalquartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) measurements. This method is particularly adapted to characterize electrolyte/electrode interfaces during electrochemical and chemical processes in liquid medium. The ellipsometer, based on a rotating compensator Horiba Jobin-Yvon ellipsometer, has been adapted to acquire spectra every on a spectral range fixed from . Measurements with short sampling times are only achievable with a fixed analyzer position . Therefore the ellipsometercalibration is extremely important for high precision measurements and we propose a spectroscopic calibration (i.e., determination of the azimuth of elements according to the wavelength) on the whole spectral range. A homemade EQCM was developed to detect mass variations attached to the electrode. This additional instrument provides further information useful for ellipsometric data modeling of complex electrochemical systems. The EQCM measures frequency variations of piezoelectric quartz crystal oscillator working at . These frequency variations are linked to mass variations of electrode surface with a precision of every . Data acquisition has been developed in order to simultaneously record spectroscopic ellipsometry, EQCM, and electrochemical measurements by a single computer. Finally the electrodeposition of bismuth telluride film was monitored by this new in situ experimental setup and the density of electroplated layers was extracted from the optical thickness and EQCM mass.