(Color online) (Left) Fabrication process flow of a cantilever. (Right) An optical micrograph showing an array of released cantilevers. The vertical dark slanted areas are the (111) planes of the Si base platform.
(Color online) (Left) The sputtering setup to produce ternary composition spread. The variations in color intensity illustrate that thickness and composition ratios also vary as a function of position, hence composition spread. (Right) A schematic representation of resulted ternary spread from sputter deposition over an array of cantilevers.
(Color online)Cantilever curvature measurement setup. Laser light is directed through a series of lenses and mirrors, and microscope objective lens is used to focus the beam small enough to scan along the cantilevers. Deflected light signal is acquired by computer through the detection of the position sensitive detector.
(Color online) (Top row) Scans of an individual cantilever. The bumpy topography in the pit (pink region) illustrates high resolution of the system. (Bottom left) A small subset of an array of cantilevers ; they are located on centers in both and directions. (Bottom right) A scanning electron micrograph of the same cantilevers under residual stress from sputter deposition.
(Left) A schematic of calibration. (Right) The calibration factor is the slope of the PSD voltage vs angular deflection .
(Color online) (Top left) Contour map of residual stress in Fe–Ni–Al films deposited in our system, as determined by cantilever deflections. (Top right) Same data plotted using a color map. (Bottom left) Image of Fe–Ni–Al composition sample ( wafer). The labels indicate the approximate position of the elemental sources creating the composition spread. The dark line is an artifact introduced by the photographic equipment. (Bottom right) Ternary phase diagram of the system showing composition dependent residual stress.
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