Electrical circuit describing the steady state electrical properties of a TE module.
(a) Experimental setup for ac measurements. Diagram for (b) a inline module, (c) a commercially available TE module or simple unicouple, and (d) a - or -type TE leg. Permission granted from Materials Research Society (Ref. 11).
circuit for one-port analysis.
Thermal impedance related to electrical impedance.
ac thermal-electrical model for a TE module. Permission granted from Materials Research Society (Ref. 11).
Transmission line model for a TE module where is the thermal impedance. Permission granted from Materials Research Society (Ref. 11).
Magnitude and phase of the impedance versus frequency for (a) a commercially available TE module using , (b) a inline module consisting of from a commercially available module, and (c) a single TE leg of a -type sample . Permission granted from Materials Research Society (Ref. 11).
(Color online) (a) Diagram of module (LAST and LASTT) for infrared imaging. [(b)–(d)], Infrared imaging of a TE module using an ac signal showing the temperature profile along the -type material at three moments in time. Permission granted from Materials Research Society (Ref. 11).
Example of a long vs a short sample of -type . Solid data points are magnitude and hollow points are phase. Square data points are the long sample and triangle points are the short sample.
vs maximum absolute phase angle for an equivalent circuit.
Phase vs log frequency.
Phase and magnitude plots vs log frequency.
Comparing digital vs ac lock-in technique using . The squares and triangles are the magnitude and phase of the impedance, respectively, using the ac lock-in technique. The circles are the resistance measurements using the digital technique.
direct vs indirect measurements at low temperatures of undoped and constantan. The reference line is for constantan only.
(a) Diagram for mounting the TE sample at high temperatures. (b) sample with platinum wires ) resistive welded to sample. (c) sample suspended in the UHT system.
Resistance vs frequency at various temperatures of .
Measured resistivity of the sample compared to Ames Laboratory measurements.
of values measured vs temperature compared to -type . This plot shows the corrected for the measurement wires but not including radiation losses and the measured that has been corrected for radiation losses using an emissivity value of 0.7.
[(a) and (b)] Mounting constantan wire for measurement in the UHT system. (c) Constantan wire probe spacings.
Magnitude of impedance vs frequency at multiple temperatures.
Phase of impedance vs frequency at multiple temperatures.
Experimental results for measuring of constantan.
Diagram for the steady state analysis of radiation losses for an applied dc current.
Analyzing radiation losses for a linear temperature gradient along the length of the sample divided into four sections.
ac TE module model results.
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