General block diagram of the FReLoN detector.
Schematic drawing of the FReLoN. (a) Vacuum chamber. (b) CCD chip. (c) Water cooling plate. (d) Signal processing cards. (e) Electromagnetic compatibility box.
Chronogram (in single shot during the 100 ns pixel period) of the horizontal clocking phases (green and black) and the video signal in blue. The right shape of the edges and “plateau” illustrates the integrity of the signals.
Multichannels CCD chip: Frame transfer mode, the integration of the image is made during read out of the image .
Multichannels CCD chip: full frame transfer mode. Readout and integration are sequential.
Kinetics mode used in time resolved spectroscopy.
Crosstalk effect: The full illuminated channel (white peak 60 000 adu) induces negative peaks (black peak 10 adu) on the neighbors as shown on the crossline. In such an image, the effective DR (60 000/10) decreases to 6000 gray levels .
In a burst of 50 images recorded at four frames a second, the variations of each dark quadrant-image level has been plotted from image to image. The stability of the four background levels is for 60 000 adu the saturated level.
Homogeneity of the four photon transfer curves for the FReLoN2k16: Variance vs signal plotted for the four channels exhibits the same slope (i.e., the same sensitivity) and the same saturated well value.
General block diagram of the real time software architecture for FReLoN applications.
(a) edge dispersive EXAFS derived from reduced 5 and samples. Spectral acquisition times are 62 and 65 ms, respectively. Fits are shown in red.
Temporal variation in Rh edge XANES derived during exposure of reduced 5 and systems to flowing NO/He at 373 K. Data derived from 750 dispersive XAS spectra sequentially collected at .
(a) Real time XAS spectral variations of the Re species during the reaction of in water. (b) XANES features of the initial compound and final decomposition product are highlighted.
Diffraction patterns extracted from the full frame images collected with the FReLoN camera, showing the evolution of the sample as the reaction from traverses the sampled area.
Phase fractions obtained from the Rietveld refinement of the data are shown in Fig. 14.
(Left) Full diffraction pattern of the starting material for the Jacobsite reaction. (Right) the ultimately sampled region and the diffraction pattern obtained via linear, on the chip integration.
Left: evolution of the diffraction pattern during the synthesis. Right: Zoom of the initial reaction region.
Evolution of the diffraction pattern during the initial Jacobsite reaction.
Refinement of a single diffraction pattern obtained during the reaction; in this case five separate phases are present in the sample, and all of their weight fractions could be adequately refined from the 20 ms data.
Left: phase fractions obtained from the data taken during the of the initial reaction. Right: Zoom of the central reaction region.
Main performance of the FReLoN 14- and 16-bit resolution.
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