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Invited article: The fast readout low noise camera as a versatile x-ray detector for time resolved dispersive extended x-ray absorption fine structure and diffraction studies of dynamic problems in materials science, chemistry, and catalysis
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10.1063/1.2783112
/content/aip/journal/rsi/78/9/10.1063/1.2783112
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/rsi/78/9/10.1063/1.2783112

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

General block diagram of the FReLoN detector.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Schematic drawing of the FReLoN. (a) Vacuum chamber. (b) CCD chip. (c) Water cooling plate. (d) Signal processing cards. (e) Electromagnetic compatibility box.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Chronogram (in single shot during the 100 ns pixel period) of the horizontal clocking phases (green and black) and the video signal in blue. The right shape of the edges and “plateau” illustrates the integrity of the signals.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Multichannels CCD chip: Frame transfer mode, the integration of the image is made during read out of the image .

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Multichannels CCD chip: full frame transfer mode. Readout and integration are sequential.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Kinetics mode used in time resolved spectroscopy.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Crosstalk effect: The full illuminated channel (white peak 60 000 adu) induces negative peaks (black peak 10 adu) on the neighbors as shown on the crossline. In such an image, the effective DR (60 000/10) decreases to 6000 gray levels .

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

In a burst of 50 images recorded at four frames a second, the variations of each dark quadrant-image level has been plotted from image to image. The stability of the four background levels is for 60 000 adu the saturated level.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

Homogeneity of the four photon transfer curves for the FReLoN2k16: Variance vs signal plotted for the four channels exhibits the same slope (i.e., the same sensitivity) and the same saturated well value.

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

General block diagram of the real time software architecture for FReLoN applications.

Image of FIG. 11.
FIG. 11.

(a) edge dispersive EXAFS derived from reduced 5 and samples. Spectral acquisition times are 62 and 65 ms, respectively. Fits are shown in red.

Image of FIG. 12.
FIG. 12.

Temporal variation in Rh edge XANES derived during exposure of reduced 5 and systems to flowing NO/He at 373 K. Data derived from 750 dispersive XAS spectra sequentially collected at .

Image of FIG. 13.
FIG. 13.

(a) Real time XAS spectral variations of the Re species during the reaction of in water. (b) XANES features of the initial compound and final decomposition product are highlighted.

Image of FIG. 14.
FIG. 14.

Diffraction patterns extracted from the full frame images collected with the FReLoN camera, showing the evolution of the sample as the reaction from traverses the sampled area.

Image of FIG. 15.
FIG. 15.

Phase fractions obtained from the Rietveld refinement of the data are shown in Fig. 14.

Image of FIG. 16.
FIG. 16.

(Left) Full diffraction pattern of the starting material for the Jacobsite reaction. (Right) the ultimately sampled region and the diffraction pattern obtained via linear, on the chip integration.

Image of FIG. 17.
FIG. 17.

Left: evolution of the diffraction pattern during the synthesis. Right: Zoom of the initial reaction region.

Image of FIG. 18.
FIG. 18.

Evolution of the diffraction pattern during the initial Jacobsite reaction.

Image of FIG. 19.
FIG. 19.

Refinement of a single diffraction pattern obtained during the reaction; in this case five separate phases are present in the sample, and all of their weight fractions could be adequately refined from the 20 ms data.

Image of FIG. 20.
FIG. 20.

Left: phase fractions obtained from the data taken during the of the initial reaction. Right: Zoom of the central reaction region.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table I.

Main performance of the FReLoN 14- and 16-bit resolution.

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/content/aip/journal/rsi/78/9/10.1063/1.2783112
2007-09-17
2014-04-19
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Invited article: The fast readout low noise camera as a versatile x-ray detector for time resolved dispersive extended x-ray absorption fine structure and diffraction studies of dynamic problems in materials science, chemistry, and catalysis
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/rsi/78/9/10.1063/1.2783112
10.1063/1.2783112
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