Schematic diagram of the deposition setup having nanoparticle synthesis section D1, nanoparticles-thin film structure deposition section D2, and online particle size measurement section M.
Schematic diagram of nanoparticle synthesis section D1. (a) Carrier gas inlet, (b) dilution gas inlet, (c) sheath gas inlet, and (d) excess gas outlet are indicated by arrows.
Schematic diagram of the spark generator consisting of Pd electrodes (1 and ), spark enclosure (2), brass collets for holding the electrodes (3), step motor connected to Pd electrode 1 (4), carrier gas inlet (5), dilution gas inlet (6), and outlet for polydisperse aerosol (7).
Dual-deposition setup with a high voltage (HV) electrode, shutter (S), evaporation source (B), mask (M), nozzle (N), quartz crystal thickness monitor (T), entrance valve (V1), exit valve (V2), and vacuum pumps assembly (P). “a” and “b” indicate the positions of substrate during nanoparticles and thin film deposition, respectively.
A composed picture of low-magnification SEM images of Pd nanoparticles-Pr thin film structures deposited on a glass substrate. The dotted line indicates the diameter of nanoparticle deposition.
(a) Effect of carrier gas flow on particle size distribution and (b) geometric standard deviation , geometric mean mobility equivalent diameter , and total number concentration as a function of carrier gas flow rate.
(a) Effect of frequency on particle size distribution and (b) geometric standard deviation , geometric mean mobility equivalent diameter , and total number concentration vs spark frequency.
Particle size distribution for the samples , , and as measured by SMPS (a) without sintering and (b) with sintering at .
TEM images of the samples (i) , (iii) , and (iv) after sintering at , (v) particle size distribution as obtained by TEM micrographs and image analysis (ii) HRTEM micrograph of individual nanoparticle from the sample .
HRSEM micrographs of the samples (a) Pd (thin film) structure, (b) and (c) and (d) after sintering at . Arrows in the (a) indicate cracks in the Pr thin film on oxidation during exposure to air (during transfer from deposition chamber to HRSEM) due to incomplete coverage by the Pd nanoparticle overlayer.
Different possible nanoparticle-thin film structures: (i) isolated nanoparticle thin film, (ii) nanoparticle layer-thin film, (iii) thin film-nanoparticle layer, (iv) nanoparticles protected by thin film, (v) multilayer stacks of thin films having isolated nanoparticles, and (vi) nanoparticles dispersed in a thin film matrix.
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