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Integrated setup for the fabrication and measurement of magnetoresistive nanoconstrictions in ultrahigh vacuum
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View: Figures


Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Side view of the UHV dual beam system with (1) the FIB column in the vertical direction, (2) SEM column arranged at , (3) motorized goniometer stage, and (4) the fast entry lock. The small ports below the FIB column are designated for mounting of an e-beam evaporator. Further ports for evaporators are on the other side.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Scanning ion micrograph of graphite flakes (a). Line scan (b) along the line indicated on the image. The plot is created from the secondary electron detector signal. A resolution of 10 nm is obtained from a Gaussian fit (imaging mode).

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

FIB micrograph of milled pores starting at 0.1 pC in a Pd coated 30 nm thick silicon nitride membrane. The dose has been increased from 0.1 to 2.0 pC, in 0.1 pC steps. A minimum hole size of 20 nm is obtained for 0.1 pC.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Photograph of the interior of the dual beam system, showing the yoke with coil on the left hand side and the micromanipulator on the right hand side.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Five-axis sample stage with the micromanipulator rigidly attached to the main support frame of the stage. The micromanipulator can be moved upward and downward and tilted together with the sample (white arrows), while the sample can be moved in the -plane (black arrows) and rotated after lifting the tip.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Schematic of the MR measurement setup: a metal film is deposited onto insulating substrate and a nanowire is created by FIB milling, which remains connected to the grounded film on one side. The resistance can be measured when the tip is navigated to connect the end of the wire.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

SEM micrograph (side view) of the sample and the tip in the gap between the pole pieces of the electromagnet.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

SEM micrograph of the sample and the W tip. Several test samples, consisting of a wider contact pad and a short section of nanowire, are milled into a 30 nm Permalloy film between two wide and 250 nm thick Au stripes (bright regions).

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

Flux density vs current calibration curve of the electromagnet.

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

Resistance vs current plot. The current was pulsed (duration of 10 ms, 10 Hz). The Py wire has a thickness of 30 nm. The characteristics for three successive sweeps are shown (first sweep: solid squares, second/third run: open circles/solid line). The resistance increases due to a current induced temperature rise. From the first to the second run the base resistance at is lowered due to annealing effects during the first run. The second sweep covers the same current interval. No further annealing is found while the resistance/current dependence of the third run is absolutely identical to that of the second run. Increasing the current beyond 12 mA finally destroys the wire.

Image of FIG. 11.
FIG. 11.

SEM micrograph of a destroyed wire with the tip still in measuring position.

Image of FIG. 12.
FIG. 12.

MR measurement at room temperature. The angle between current and magnetic field direction was . The structure is the same as shown in Fig. 8. A pulsed current with 0.1 mA and 10 ms pulse width with a frequency of 10 Hz was used (the black curve goes from negative to positive magnetic field values).

Image of FIG. 13.
FIG. 13.

MR measurements with the tip on the pad (upper curve) and the tip on the film, i.e., before the wire (lower curve). The structure is the same as shown in Fig. 9.


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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Integrated setup for the fabrication and measurement of magnetoresistive nanoconstrictions in ultrahigh vacuum