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Combined low-temperature scanning tunneling/atomic force microscope for atomic resolution imaging and site-specific force spectroscopy
1.M. Morgenstern, A. Schwarz, and U. D. Schwarz, in Springer Nanotechnology Handbook, 2nd ed., edited by B. Bhushan (Springer, Heidelberg, 2007).
2.M. Tinkham, Introduction to Superconductivity (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1996).
8.P. Zeppenfeld, C. P. Lutz, and D. M. Eigler, Ultramicroscopy 42–44, 128 (1992).
12.Omicron NanoTechnology GmbH
), Limburger Strasse 75, 65232 Taunustein, Germany.
13.Nor-Cal Products Inc.
So. Oregon, Yreka, CA 96097, USA.
14.MDC Vacuum Products Corp.
), 23842 Cabot Boulevard, Hayward, CA 94545, USA.
15.Building vibrations caused by compressors, elevators, or air handling systems occur at specific frequencies. If built correctly, a separate foundation can supress the transmission of these vibrations to the experimental setup. On the downside, the lower mass of a separate foundation makes it much more prone to external excitation by, e.g., traffic, nearby construction sites, seismic events, etc. Thus, while building peaks may be largely eliminated from the vibrational noise spectrum, the overall noise floor of the spectrum is usually markedly higher compared to a spectrum taken on the building’s base slab. As a consequence, if the microscope is built so that its resonant frequencies do not coincide with any building peaks, the lower noise level offered by the building’s base slab is better than that of a separate foundation. This is especially true if in-house machinery can be prevented from exciting the building structure in the first place by, e.g., isolating them using simple rubber elements. To have the best of both worlds, some laboratories chose to additionally vibration isolate their separate foundations by dampers such as pneumatic springs. This setup is superior to both the solution in our laboratory and to the construction of a separate foundation, but costs much more. An architectural office specialized on the design of such facilities is, e.g., Wilson Architects, 374 Congress Street, Suite 400, Boston, MA 02210, USA (http://www.wilsonarch.com/index/nanotechnology).
16.Scientists often request separate foundations when planning laboratory space for ultrahigh-resolution SPM work, but overlook the influence of acoustic noise from air handling systems on these measurements. Such systems are often very loud, as building codes for laboratory space require substantial air recirculation and may thus cause significant disturbance of the measurements. In most cases, it is much cheaper to optimize the air handling system than to build a separate foundation; therefore, we suggest attacking this problem first. Optimally, close collaboration with the achitectural, engineering, and labor safety offices involved in the planning and construction process should result in a solution that avoids any air outlet inside the soundproofed room that might potentially produce audiable noise during measurement. Even if no separate soundproofed room is installed, planning specifically for low-noise air handling might still be an effective measure to increase stability and resolution.
18.Cryovac Gesellschaft für Tieftemperaturtechnik mbH & Co KG
), Heuserweg 14, 53842 Troisdorf, Germany.
21.G. Meyer, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 2960 (1996).
A low-temperature STM system based on the design described by Meyer is commercially available by VTS-CreaTec GmbH (www.vts-createc.com
), Industriestr. 9, 74391 Erligheim, Germany. In addition, a somewhat similar system is offered by Omicron Nanotechnology (Ref. 12
22.Modular double-shield cryostat systems have been described earlier for STM applications in connection with flow cryostats; see, B. C. Stipe, M. A. Rezaei, and W. Ho, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 137 (1999),
Type DT-470-SD made by LakeShore Crotronics, Inc.
), 575 McCorkle Blvd, Westerville, OH, 43082, USA.
24.The boiling temperature of the cryogens, and thus the temperature of the cryostat and ultimately the entire microscope, depends on ambient pressure if the cryogens are exposed to air. In fact, the boiling temperature of LHe changes about for change in atmospheric pressure (according to data published on www.airliquide. com), which is so significant that we suspect this to be the most important factor currently limiting our temperature stability. Note that the boiling temperature of LN shifts even more, namely, . As discussed in the main text, we plan on improving temperature stability in the future by pumping on both LHe and LN.
29.S. H. Pan, S. Behler, M. Bernasconi, and H. J. Güntherodt, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 37, 167 (1992).
39.M. Morgenstern, J. Klijn, Chr. Meyer, M. Getzlaff, R. Adelung, R. A. Römer, K. Rossnagel, L. Kipp, M. Skibowski, and R. Wiesendanger, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 136806 (2002).
40.MACOR is a trademark of Corning Glass Works and denotes a machinable glass ceramic.
42.S. H. Pan, International Patent Publication No. WO 93/19494 (30 September 1993).
made by PI Ceramic GmbH
), Lindenstr., 07589 Lederhose, Germany, using their PIC255 piezoceramic.
44.EBL Products Inc.
), 91 Prestige Park Circle, East Hartford, CT 06108, USA.
), 1050 East Maple Road, Troy, MI 48083, USA.
51.J. H. Müller, U. D. Schwarz, R. Wepf, and R. Wiesendanger, Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 76, 893 (2003).
55.AFMs based on laser-beam deflection that can be operated between and room temperature are offered commercially by Omicron (Ref. 12), RHK (Ref. 45), and Jeol (Ref. 56).
), 1-2, Musashino 3-chome Akishima, Tokyo 196-8558, Japan.
57.Commercial cantilevers are mostly made out of silicon, silicon nitride, or silicon oxide. It is, of course, possible to change the tip material by evaporating another chemical species to the tip end, but this procedure might likely result in more blunt tips.
67.F. J. Giessibl, S. Hembacher, H. Bielefeldt, and J. Mannhart, Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 72, S15 (2001).
72.R. D. Grober, J. Acimovic, J. Schuck, D. Hessman, P. J. Kindlemann, J. Hespanha, A. S. Morse, K. Karrai, I. Tiemann, and S. Manus, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 2776 (2000).
73.J. Rychen, T. Ihn, P. Studerus, A. Herrmann, K. Ensslin, H. J. Hug, P. J. A. van Schendel, and H.-J. Güntherodt, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 1695 (2000).
74.Omicron Nanotechnology (Ref. 12) shows on their corporate website as their “result of the month 11/2006” atomic resolution images of NaCl(001) obtained with a -plus style sensor at low temperatures. However, these results have not been published otherwise.
88.R. W. Ward, in Keypapers in Physics, Piezoelectricity, edited by C. Zwick Rosen, B. V. Hiremath, and R. Newnham (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1992), p. 220.
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