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Schematic diagram of the experimental setup. The grounded loops designate the coaxial line sections.
Representative signal in a DPPH powder sample with frequency modulation and field sweep. The signal detected with the following parameters: modulation frequency, modulation amplitude, carrier frequency of , source output power, and field scanning rate.
Typical frequency-swept resonance signal for a DPPH sample measured with frequency modulation. Microwave source power was , the modulation frequency was , and the amplitude of modulation was .
A representative signal in a DPPH powder sample with field modulation and frequency sweeping. The external field was centered at and field modulation frequency was with amplitude of . The microwave source power was set at .
A representative signal from V6 at measured with field modulation and field sweeping. The microwave source power was set at . Modulation frequency was with amplitude of . The external field was swept with the rate of . The narrow line around is the signal of the DPPH marker.
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