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High energy x-ray diffraction/x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy for high-throughput analysis of composition spread thin films
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10.1063/1.3274179
/content/aip/journal/rsi/80/12/10.1063/1.3274179
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/rsi/80/12/10.1063/1.3274179
View: Figures

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Schematic of the XRD/XRF equipment in the CHESS A2 hutch. The schematic is approximately to scale, and the Mar 345 image shown in the outline of the detector is a typical diffraction image acquired on a composition spread thin film.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

The reciprocal space geometry for the diffraction experiment is shown with the substrate normal displaced from the initial wave vector . The green spherical section denotes the section of the Ewald sphere intersected by the image plate detector. A scattering vector which intercepts the Ewald sphere is shown along with the corresponding final wave vector . The fiber texture ring formed by procession of about is shown in blue. For the reciprocal lattice vector at , the angular displacement from , i.e., the fiber texture angle , is also indicated.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

The XRF spectrum from the center position of the Pt–Ru film. The components of the fit spectrum, including the continuum background “cont.,” are plotted with the raw data (top). The logarithmic residual spectrum (bottom) demonstrates that all data peaks have been identified and properly fit. In addition to the film elements and As dopants in the substrate, the spectrum includes fluorescence from trace Ta impurities in the underlayer and four elements from unintentional detection of a different fluorescence source.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Interpolated contour plots show the XRF-determined profile of the atomic fraction Pt (a) and its deviation from that of the deposition profile calculations (b) for the Pt–Ru composition spread thin film. The plots are within an outline of the Si substrate and the element symbols denote the orientation of the respective deposition source with respect to the substrate. The black points show the substrate positions used in high energy XRD/XRF data acquisition.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

The interpolated contour plot shows the XRF-determined profile of the Pt–Ru film thickness. The plots are within an outline of the Si substrate and the element symbols denote the orientation of the respective deposition source with respect to the substrate. The black points show the substrate positions used in high energy XRD/XRF data acquisition.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

The background subtraction for the diffraction image acquired at substrate center is illustrated. The raw diffraction image (a) is plotted with the background image (b) that is common to the entire data set. The difference image (c) shows the presence of many Pt and Ru Bragg reflections and demonstrates the effectiveness of the background subtraction.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

(a) The diffraction profiles from the 45 measurements on the Pt–Ru composition spread are plotted with interpolation along the composition (vertical) axis. The XRF-determined compositions of the measured samples are noted by red markers along the vertical axis. Each profile is normalized by the respective XRF-determined thin film mass. The alloying of the two elements is evident in the slope of the diffraction peaks as a function of composition, and the two-phase region is easily identified. (b) The profiles of the most Pt-rich and Ru-rich samples are plotted along with the indexed powder patterns for fcc Pt (top) and hcp-Ru (bottom) (Ref. 22). The peak shifting due to alloying is evident, and the profiles show high-order peaks in the high scattering vector range which are not included in the indexed patterns.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

The diffraction intensity profiles of the Pt{200} (a) and Pt{111} (b) Bragg reflections are plotted as a function of the scattering vector angular displacement from substrate normal. Analysis of these distributions reveals that the film is fiber textured about Pt(111). Different distributions are plotted for left-hand side (LHS) and right-hand side (RHS) of the detector, which correspond to the sampling of reciprocal space on different sides of the plane defined by and (see Fig. 2). (c) Using only the RHS of the 45 diffraction images, the distributions of the Pt{200} and Ru{101} are plotted as a function of the atomic fraction of Pt. The Pt{200} (Ru{101}) distribution is shown over the composition range where the fcc-Pt (hcp-Ru) phase is dominant. Following the fiber texture analysis of (a) and (b), the plot indicates that the fcc-Pt alloys maintain Pt(111) fiber texture over the entire composition range. Similarly, the plot demonstrates that the hcp-Ru alloys maintain Ru(001) fiber texture.

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/content/aip/journal/rsi/80/12/10.1063/1.3274179
2009-12-28
2014-04-24
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: High energy x-ray diffraction/x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy for high-throughput analysis of composition spread thin films
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/rsi/80/12/10.1063/1.3274179
10.1063/1.3274179
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