Schematic of the deposition setup where the precursor is loaded in alumina boat near the gas port, whereas substrates are loaded near the vacuum port. Reprinted with permission from S. G. Ansari, M. A. Dar, M. S. Dhage, Young Soon Kim, Z. A. Ansari, and Hyung-Shik Shin, Journal of Applied Physics, 102, 073537 (2007). © 2007, American Institute of Physics.
FESEM images of the film as a function of deposition temperatures of (a) , (b) , (c) , (d) , (e) , and (f) .
XRD spectra of film showing the increase in peak intensity/crystallinity with increasing deposition temperature.
TEM photographs of the film deposited at (a) and (b) . (c) HRTEM image of the film deposited at with clear lattice fringes 0.31 nm apart. (d) Deposition at results in the stacking fault. The lattice fringe distance is 0.31 nm, which is similar to (110) plane of rutile .
(a) Wide scan XPS survey spectra of film as a function of deposition temperature. The peak positions and intensities of Sn , Sn , Sn , and Sn (Auger) are the same, suggesting that the film composition has not changed (all the curves are scaled to one scale value). (b) Core level Sn (5/2) photoelectron spectra of film as a function of deposition temperature. Sn peaks are centered at 487.2 eV and Sn peaks are centered at 495.6 eV with a spin-orbit splitting of 8.4 eV. (c) Core level O photoelectron spectra of film as a function of deposition temperature. The peaks are found centered at 531.2 eV.
(a) Core level Sn photoelectron spectra of film grown at 300 and . Scatter is the experimental data and solid lines are results of curve fitting. Sn is found to be composed of two components: (487.1 eV) and (488.0 eV). (b) Core level O photoelectron spectra of film grown at 300 and . Scatter is the experimental data and solid lines are results of curve fitting. The main component is located at 531.1 eV, which corresponds to bonding, and a component of (surface chemisorbed oxygen) was located at 532.4 eV.
Raman spectra of the film as a function of deposition temperature with a band at due to Si.
Variation in sheet resistance of the film as a function of deposition temperature, as estimated from characteristics obtained using the electrometer.
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