banner image
No data available.
Please log in to see this content.
You have no subscription access to this content.
No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
High-resolution, high-transmission soft x-ray spectrometer for the study of biological samples
Rent this article for


Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Sketch of the optical path of the soft x-ray spectrometer with source S. The aperture A can be used to mask the spherical mirror M. G denotes a blazed VLS grating, and D a back-illuminated CCD detector in normal incidence geometry.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

The different limitations (see inset) of the resolving power as a function of photon energy and diffraction order. For calculating the aberration limit, a fully illuminated mirror (i.e., with open aperture A) was assumed.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Comparison of the measured (squares) and calculated (triangles) grating efficiencies for the four photon energies of interest in their respective diffraction orders. The efficiencies were measured at beamline 6.3.2. For the calculations a microroughness of 10 Å was assumed.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

The narrow Rayleigh line as it appears on the rotated CCD detector, allowing the use of the super-resolution technique. The image is binned to 64 slices in the vertical direction and expanded by a factor of 100 in the horizontal direction.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

(a) The four top spectra (dashed) show the sums of four groups of slices selected and shifted by their subpixel shifts. The bottom spectrum is the sum of the four spectra above. (b) The solid line with circles is a copy of the lowest spectrum in (a), the black bars represent the response function of the super-resolution technique to a -function, and the dashed line with rectangles shows the spectrum deconvolved by the response function using three van Cittert iterations.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Resonant inelastic soft x-ray scattering (RIXS) map of HOPG. The arrows denote areas of the map with predominant and emissions, as well as - and -excitations. The Fermi level is marked on both axes.


Generic image for table
Table I.

Optical parameters as well as calculated reflectivities and efficiencies for the selected photon energies and diffraction orders. The total detection efficiency is calculated as the product of calculated mirror reflectivity, measured grating efficiency, and detector efficiency taken from the operating manual of the detector (Ref. 38).


Article metrics loading...


Full text loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: High-resolution, high-transmission soft x-ray spectrometer for the study of biological samples