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Volume 80, Issue 8, August 2009
We review the current state of multiphoton microscopy. In particular, the requirements and limitations associated with high-speed multiphotonimaging are considered. A description of the different scanning technologies such as line scan, multifoci approaches, multidepth microscopy, and novel detection techniques is given. The main nonlinear optical contrast mechanisms employed in microscopy are reviewed, namely, multiphoton excitation fluorescence,second harmonic generation, and third harmonic generation. Techniques for optimizing these nonlinear mechanisms through a careful measurement of the spatial and temporal characteristics of the focal volume are discussed, and a brief summary of photobleaching effects is provided. Finally, we consider three new applications of multiphoton microscopy: nonlinear imaging in microfluidics as applied to chemical analysis and the use of two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation as contrast mechanisms applied to imaging problems in the medical sciences.
- THERMOMETRY; THERMAL DIFFUSIVITY; ACOUSTIC; PHOTOTHERMAL AND PHOTOACOUSTIC
80(2009); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3202102View Description Hide Description
Semiconductor diodes are often used for measuringtemperatures. The forward voltage across a diode decreases, approximately linearly, with the increase in temperature. The applied method is mainly the simplest one. A constant direct current flows through the diode, and voltage is measured at diode terminals. The direct current that flows through the diode, putting it into operating mode, heats up the diode. The increase in temperature of the diode-sensor, i.e., the systematic error due to self-heating, depends on the intensity of current predominantly and also on other factors. The results of systematic error measurements due to heating up by the forward-bias current have been presented in this paper. The measurements were made at several diodes over a wide range of bias current intensity.