The vertical positioner is a 10 mm piezoelectric stack actuator (Noliac SCMAP07) bonded to a standard base plate. The sample holder is affixed to the top of the stack.
Schematic diagram of the vertical feedback loop operating in constant- force contact-mode AFM. The image profile is the voltage applied to the amplifier.
A comparison of hysteresis exhibited by the voltage-driven and charge-driven piezoelectric positioner shown in Fig. 1. The input signal was a 100 Hz sine wave with a peak-to-peak voltage of 150 V in (a) and 30 V in (b). (The charge-driven results are offset for clarity).
Simplified schematic diagram of a charge drive. The piezoelectric load is shaded in gray.
The topography of a BudgetSensors HS-100MG calibration grating imaged in constant-force contact-mode. The scan area is and the feature height is 100 nm. The dashed line indicates the location of the single profile line plotted in Fig. 6.
The profile of a single image line acquired using a (a) voltage-driven and (b) charge-driven vertical positioner.
The maximum error due to hysteresis of the voltage-driven and charge-driven piezoelectric actuator.
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