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High-intensity ion sources for accelerators with emphasis on beam formation and transport (invited)a)
a)Invited paper, published as part of the Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Ion Sources, Gatlinburg, Tennessee, September 2009.
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Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

CHORDIS multicusp ion source (Ref. 1) with internal oven.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Penning ion source for multiple charged ions with additional sputter electrode (4) (Ref. 2). (1), filament. (2), heated cathode. (3) and (5), anodes. (6), cold cathode. (7) and (10), gas inlets. (8), extractor. (9), bottle-shaped magnetic field.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

CERN duoplasmatron for high-intensity proton beams (Ref. 13). 1: Oxide cathode. 2: Main magnet coil. 3: Intermediate electrode. 4: Anode with 0.6–mm aperture. 5: Auxiliary magnet coil. 6: Potential plate. 7: Expansion cup with 20–mm aperture. 8: Current transformer. Light shaded: insulators. Dark shaded: Main magnet yoke.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Resistance-increase curves for the two filaments serving the LANSCE converter ion source (Ref. 15). The heating-power levels were raised twice on Days 6 and 15, and when the exponential fitting curve for the left filament approached the previously determined limit of 19% on day 24 both heating-power levels were reduced, extending this run by another four days. The catastrophic failure of this filament then occurred within a few hours.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

2.45 GHz ion source SILHI for protons and deuterons (Ref. 22). The waveguide upstream of the plasma chamber is water cooled and bent by 90° (into the plane of this illustration) to protect the vacuum window from being hit by backstreaming electrons.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Stable plasma confinement configurations. Left, monocusp (Ref. 27) utilized in a proton source (Ref. 28); center, sextupole formed by permanent magnets as an example of multicusp devices; right, yin-yang coil (tennis-ball seam) (Ref. 27) utilized by an ECRIS (Ref. 29).

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Rf-driven, cesiated multicusp ion source with external antenna and plasma-gun ignition under development at SNS (Ref. 30). This source delivered up to 100 mA ( sustained over three days) beam current at 6% duty factor on a test stand.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

Penning ion source operated at ISIS Rutherford (Ref. 35). The magnetic field is established between the “Penning pole pieces.”

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

High-current accel/decel extraction system designed for a 250 mA proton beam (Ref. 37).

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

Meniscus formation for two outlet aperture contours of a ion source (Ref. 41). The sharp edge (a) is unable to anchor the plasma meniscus, and this meniscus is much wider and less straight than the one in (b), leading to a larger beam emittance.

Image of FIG. 11.
FIG. 11.

Proposed electrostatic LEBT (Ref. 43) for a 60 mA, 65 keV beam with two-lens focusing elements, two-dipole electron removal system, and steering/chopping plates operated near ground potential. Electrode potentials in kV from left to right: −65/−45 (puller where deflected electrons are deposited)/0/ (steering and chopping voltages superimposed)/46.5/0.

Image of FIG. 12.
FIG. 12.

Schematic layout of a long LEBT (Ref. 45) with magnetic solenoid and quadrupole lenses. This LEBT provides beam switching and chopping options. The necessary positive-ion traps are not shown.


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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: High-intensity ion sources for accelerators with emphasis on H− beam formation and transport (invited)a)