Preston tube showing the Pitot tube mounted against the flow direction (Ref. 1).
A schematic of a single pivot transducer shows its installation in a measuring site where the active face moves about a fixed point.
Single pivot mechanisms. (a) shows the relevant moment on the cantilever and the active face thickness ; (b) shows a flexure beam with strain gauges; (c) shows rigid beam with a resistant spring.
A shear stress transducer showing strain gauges for studying normal and shear stresses between a prosthetic leg and limb (Refs. 113 and 114).
Agarwal and Venkatesan’s shear and normal stress transducer for studying stresses under the ground by attaching the transducer with a pile (Ref. 110).
Shear stress transducer used by Dealy and Soong for polymer melts (Ref. 19).
Single pivot transducer measuring shear stress on mass transfer surfaces (suction or injection) (Ref. 48).
Blade transducer (a) in its housing (b) for measuring airflow over a cylindrical surface (Ref. 53).
Delaplaine’s concave shear and normal stress transducer for granular solids (Refs. 99 and 100).
A schematic of a parallel linkage transducer shows its installation in a measuring site where the active face rotates about a point that can be assumed to be infinitely distant.
Parallel linkage mechanisms with relevant forces.
An acceleration insensitive shear stress transducer used in Viking and Aerobee-Hi rockets (Refs. 61 and 62).
Tuzun and Nedderman’s shear stress transducer for granular solids (Ref. 101).
A waterproof transducer using a two piezoelectric bimorph as a spring resistance (Refs. 67 and 68).
A transducer developed at Cambridge University for granular solids (Ref. 103).
Strain gauges attached to a ring to measure both normal and shear stresses on the wall of bunkers simultaneously (Refs. 104–106).
A schematic of a diaphragm transducer shows its installation in a measuring site.
Static calibration for the shear stress transducer in a sliding plate rheometer (Ref. 140). The calibration weight related to the shear stress at the active face and proportional to the output voltage.
Cross section showing the essential elements of a sliding plate rheometer incorporating an elastic type shear stress transducer (Ref. 142): (1) sample; (2) moving plate; (3) back support; (4) stationary plate; (5) end frame; (6) gap spacer; (7) shear stress transducer incorporating a rigid beam supported by a steel diaphragm; (8) linear actuator; (9) oven.
A diaphragm transducer for simultaneously measuring shear and normal stresses of granular solids (Refs. 108 and 109).
Pickett and Cochrane’s diaphragm shear stress transducer insensitive to inertia effect (Ref. 29).
Commercial transducer from Kistler for measuring air drag on airplane skins during take-off and landing (Ref. 14).
A schematic of a pendulum arm transducer shows (a) front view and (b) side view of its installation in a measuring site.
Two L-shape arms connect together to measure biaxial shear stress of fluids (Ref. 36).
Schutz-Grunow’s shear stress transducer for measuring air in wind tunnel. The sensor unit uses an element floating in a liquid as a resistance.
A schematic of a sliding transducer shows its installation in a measuring site.
A sliding shear stress transducer for insole measurements. The magnetic resistance nulls the shear stress on the active face disk (Refs. 120 and 122).
Lord and co-workers’ transducer is mounted into an inlay located in the metatarsal head region to measure stresses under the plantar surface of the foot in-shoe during walking. The anteroposterior (solid line) and mediolateral (dashed line) shear stress are recorded without socks on eight footsteps by using a sliding shear stress transducer. The heel switch is shown for reference to the glit cycle (Ref. 124).
Leber’s unidirectional sliding shear stress transducer for use on an insole (Refs. 126 and 127). Because of the rectangular wedge at the middle of the sensor unit, the shear stress can only push the active face against the resistant plate from left to right.
A shear stress transducer using air bearings supports the active face used in wind tunnel (Refs. 89–91).
Moulic’s shear stress transducer for measuring wall shear stress at a sharp leading edge of a flat plate (Ref. 88).
A schematic of a tether transducer shows (a) front view and (b) top view of its installation in a measuring site.
Effects of misalignment on shear stress measurement using parallel linkage mechanism in supersonic gas flow for several Mach numbers at (Ref. 63). On the ordinate we have the ratio of the measured shear stress, , to its true value, .
Dimensionless total force in single pivot transducer for various gaps (Ref. 18). On the ordinate we have the ratio of the measured shear stress, , to its true value, .
Comparison of errors vs misalignments for single pivot and parallel linkage (Ref. 69). The turbulent boundary thickness . On the ordinate we have the ratio of the measured shear stress, , to its true value, . In the following quasitable, † indicates as a gap divided by active face diameter while ‡ indicates as an active face thickness divided by active face diameter. CurveMechanism † ‡ASingle pivot0.0010.05BParallel linkage0.0010.05CParallel linkage0.100.05DParallel linkage0.100
Granular materials clogging the transducer gap (Ref. 108).
In-and-out flow due to the pressure difference between the transducer case and the free stream (Ref. 10). The case pressure is lower than the mainstream pressure at the trailing edge and higher at the leading edge.
A transducer gap filled with glycerin making fluid-air interface around the transducer’s active face (Ref. 94).
Influence of airflow direction on V-groove active face (Ref. 51). On the ordinate we have the ratio of the measured shear stress, , to its minimum value, .
Application of local shear stress transducers on fluids.
Application of local shear stress transducers on gases.
Application of local shear stress transducers on granular solids.
Application of local shear stress transducers on solids.
Streamlines and forces on the active face under misalignments.
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