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Invited Article: Local shear stress transduction
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This is a comprehensive review of local direct measurement shear stress transducers.
Transducers are first classified by their movement, measuring mode, and mechanism. These categories are then subclassified into active or passive movement, static or dynamic measuring mode, and rotational or translational mechanisms. Over 80 transducers are reviewed and tabulated. Finally, sources of transducer error are analyzed. Primary sources of error are transducer and housing misalignment, material ingress around the active face, active face roughness, and the effects of temperature gradients when making measurements on surfaces where temperature gradients develop.
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