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Invited Article: Local shear stress transduction
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10.1063/1.3314284
/content/aip/journal/rsi/81/2/10.1063/1.3314284
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/rsi/81/2/10.1063/1.3314284

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Preston tube showing the Pitot tube mounted against the flow direction (Ref. 1).

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

A schematic of a single pivot transducer shows its installation in a measuring site where the active face moves about a fixed point.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Single pivot mechanisms. (a) shows the relevant moment on the cantilever and the active face thickness ; (b) shows a flexure beam with strain gauges; (c) shows rigid beam with a resistant spring.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

A shear stress transducer showing strain gauges for studying normal and shear stresses between a prosthetic leg and limb (Refs. 113 and 114).

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Agarwal and Venkatesan’s shear and normal stress transducer for studying stresses under the ground by attaching the transducer with a pile (Ref. 110).

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Shear stress transducer used by Dealy and Soong for polymer melts (Ref. 19).

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Single pivot transducer measuring shear stress on mass transfer surfaces (suction or injection) (Ref. 48).

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

Blade transducer (a) in its housing (b) for measuring airflow over a cylindrical surface (Ref. 53).

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

Delaplaine’s concave shear and normal stress transducer for granular solids (Refs. 99 and 100).

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

A schematic of a parallel linkage transducer shows its installation in a measuring site where the active face rotates about a point that can be assumed to be infinitely distant.

Image of FIG. 11.
FIG. 11.

Parallel linkage mechanisms with relevant forces.

Image of FIG. 12.
FIG. 12.

An acceleration insensitive shear stress transducer used in Viking and Aerobee-Hi rockets (Refs. 61 and 62).

Image of FIG. 13.
FIG. 13.

Tuzun and Nedderman’s shear stress transducer for granular solids (Ref. 101).

Image of FIG. 14.
FIG. 14.

A waterproof transducer using a two piezoelectric bimorph as a spring resistance (Refs. 67 and 68).

Image of FIG. 15.
FIG. 15.

A transducer developed at Cambridge University for granular solids (Ref. 103).

Image of FIG. 16.
FIG. 16.

Strain gauges attached to a ring to measure both normal and shear stresses on the wall of bunkers simultaneously (Refs. 104–106).

Image of FIG. 17.
FIG. 17.

A schematic of a diaphragm transducer shows its installation in a measuring site.

Image of FIG. 18.
FIG. 18.

Static calibration for the shear stress transducer in a sliding plate rheometer (Ref. 140). The calibration weight related to the shear stress at the active face and proportional to the output voltage.

Image of FIG. 19.
FIG. 19.

Cross section showing the essential elements of a sliding plate rheometer incorporating an elastic type shear stress transducer (Ref. 142): (1) sample; (2) moving plate; (3) back support; (4) stationary plate; (5) end frame; (6) gap spacer; (7) shear stress transducer incorporating a rigid beam supported by a steel diaphragm; (8) linear actuator; (9) oven.

Image of FIG. 20.
FIG. 20.

A diaphragm transducer for simultaneously measuring shear and normal stresses of granular solids (Refs. 108 and 109).

Image of FIG. 21.
FIG. 21.

Pickett and Cochrane’s diaphragm shear stress transducer insensitive to inertia effect (Ref. 29).

Image of FIG. 22.
FIG. 22.

Commercial transducer from Kistler for measuring air drag on airplane skins during take-off and landing (Ref. 14).

Image of FIG. 23.
FIG. 23.

A schematic of a pendulum arm transducer shows (a) front view and (b) side view of its installation in a measuring site.

Image of FIG. 24.
FIG. 24.

Two L-shape arms connect together to measure biaxial shear stress of fluids (Ref. 36).

Image of FIG. 25.
FIG. 25.

Schutz-Grunow’s shear stress transducer for measuring air in wind tunnel. The sensor unit uses an element floating in a liquid as a resistance.

Image of FIG. 26.
FIG. 26.

A schematic of a sliding transducer shows its installation in a measuring site.

Image of FIG. 27.
FIG. 27.

A sliding shear stress transducer for insole measurements. The magnetic resistance nulls the shear stress on the active face disk (Refs. 120 and 122).

Image of FIG. 28.
FIG. 28.

Lord and co-workers’ transducer is mounted into an inlay located in the metatarsal head region to measure stresses under the plantar surface of the foot in-shoe during walking. The anteroposterior (solid line) and mediolateral (dashed line) shear stress are recorded without socks on eight footsteps by using a sliding shear stress transducer. The heel switch is shown for reference to the glit cycle (Ref. 124).

Image of FIG. 29.
FIG. 29.

Leber’s unidirectional sliding shear stress transducer for use on an insole (Refs. 126 and 127). Because of the rectangular wedge at the middle of the sensor unit, the shear stress can only push the active face against the resistant plate from left to right.

Image of FIG. 30.
FIG. 30.

A shear stress transducer using air bearings supports the active face used in wind tunnel (Refs. 89–91).

Image of FIG. 31.
FIG. 31.

Moulic’s shear stress transducer for measuring wall shear stress at a sharp leading edge of a flat plate (Ref. 88).

Image of FIG. 32.
FIG. 32.

A schematic of a tether transducer shows (a) front view and (b) top view of its installation in a measuring site.

Image of FIG. 33.
FIG. 33.

Effects of misalignment on shear stress measurement using parallel linkage mechanism in supersonic gas flow for several Mach numbers at (Ref. 63). On the ordinate we have the ratio of the measured shear stress, , to its true value, .

Image of FIG. 34.
FIG. 34.

Dimensionless total force in single pivot transducer for various gaps (Ref. 18). On the ordinate we have the ratio of the measured shear stress, , to its true value, .

Image of FIG. 35.
FIG. 35.

Comparison of errors vs misalignments for single pivot and parallel linkage (Ref. 69). The turbulent boundary thickness . On the ordinate we have the ratio of the measured shear stress, , to its true value, . In the following quasitable, † indicates as a gap divided by active face diameter while ‡ indicates as an active face thickness divided by active face diameter. CurveMechanism ASingle pivot0.0010.05BParallel linkage0.0010.05CParallel linkage0.100.05DParallel linkage0.100

Image of FIG. 36.
FIG. 36.

Granular materials clogging the transducer gap (Ref. 108).

Image of FIG. 37.
FIG. 37.

In-and-out flow due to the pressure difference between the transducer case and the free stream (Ref. 10). The case pressure is lower than the mainstream pressure at the trailing edge and higher at the leading edge.

Image of FIG. 38.
FIG. 38.

A transducer gap filled with glycerin making fluid-air interface around the transducer’s active face (Ref. 94).

Image of FIG. 39.
FIG. 39.

Influence of airflow direction on V-groove active face (Ref. 51). On the ordinate we have the ratio of the measured shear stress, , to its minimum value, .

Tables

Generic image for table
Table I.

Application of local shear stress transducers on fluids.

Generic image for table
Table II.

Application of local shear stress transducers on gases.

Generic image for table
Table III.

Application of local shear stress transducers on granular solids.

Generic image for table
Table IV.

Application of local shear stress transducers on solids.

Generic image for table
Table V.

Mechanism classification.

Generic image for table
Table VI.

Streamlines and forces on the active face under misalignments.

Generic image for table
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/content/aip/journal/rsi/81/2/10.1063/1.3314284
2010-02-24
2014-04-24
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Invited Article: Local shear stress transduction
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/rsi/81/2/10.1063/1.3314284
10.1063/1.3314284
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