Schematic of the diffraction system (a) and a detailed view of the diffraction chamber (b).
Deflection AFM images (top) of and helium atom scattering (bottom) from (a) the gold electrode of the as purchased quartz crystal, (b) a gold film deposited on the gold electrode of the as purchased crystal, both after annealing in vacuum between 500 K – 600 K and (c) gold films deposited at high temperature and low deposition rate on blank quartz crystals (solid curve is obtained after 585 K annealing and the dashed curve is obtained after several sputter-anneal cycles).
AFM images for gold films deposited on prebaked polished blank AT cut quartz surfaces at different conditions: Substrate temperature, deposition rate, and film thickness for each set of images is given at the top of each column. Root-mean-square roughness value for each image is given as an inset. Scan size and z-scale of the images are 10 μm × 10 μm and 100 nm (first row), 1 μm × 1 μm and 50 nm (second row), and 500 nm × 500 nm and 30 nm (third row).
(a) Schematic of the sample holder. (b) Normalized amplitude of the transmitted signal through the different geometry quartz crystals as a function of driving frequency. Inset shows a blow up of the near resonance region. Peak width at half maxima values is also given in (b).
Overnight behavior of the resonance frequency for two different crystals.
(a) Helium specular reflection intensity as a function of substrate temperature. The adsorption traces are recorded in the presence of Kr flux while cooling the substrate. The desorption trace is recorded during heating a Kr film. (b) Diffraction scans of Kr films deposited at different temperatures on the gold surface. Since the gold films are multi-crystalline all Kr diffraction peaks show off along all the azimuthal directions on the surface.
Helium specular reflection intensity and the resonance frequency shifts during Kr deposition recorded at different substrate temperatures. Frequency shift data smoothed by adjacent averaging are also shown. Vacuum chamber pressure is also shown in each plot in order to indicate deposition start and finish times.
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