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Robotic reconnaissance platform. I. Spectroscopic instruments with rangefinders
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Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Block diagram of the multifunctional scientific instrument: (a) spectrometers; (b) lasers and other sources of radiation; and (c) optical scientific instruments.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

A prototype of a mobile armed robotic platform with scientific instrument components: (a) – (1) multi-gas sensor, (2) PTZ camera, (3) gripper camera, and (4) driving cameras; (b) – (5) spectrometer (will be installed behind electronics box), (6) probe (will be installed along the robotic arm), and (7) spectrometer camera.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Unprocessed oscillogram of single scan of oxygen absorption lines and corresponding line diagram generated from HITRAN database.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

(a) Gaussian (1) and Lorentzian (2) line shape with normalized line area and the same linewidth. (b) Simulation of different experimental line distributions when linewidth and amplitude are the same for both cases.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Multi-gas sensor prototype. The optical board is moved to the left to show the electronics. (a) VCSEL diode with collimator, (b) reference detector with filter and beam splitter, (c) prisms (optical path), (d) detectors of ambient parameters, (e) wanted signal detector, (f) analog signal digitizer, (g) sensor controller, (h) batteries.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

(a) Fragment of the CO2 absorption spectra in the 1.6 μm range (HITRAN simulation). (b) Oscillogram demonstrating the detection of CO2 in air: (1) reference signal, (2) laser beam after passing through 20 m path.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

The absorption transitions energy difference for water molecules with different oxygen isotopes versus transition energy.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

Simulated oscillograms of noise signal (a, upper graph) and wanted signal (a, lower graph). The Gaussian wanted signal is five times lower than the maximal noise spikes. Summation of 10 scans (b) and 25 scans (c). After averaging 450 scans (d), the signal peak position and the linewidth of the initial wanted signal and of the processed signal are within the needed accuracy level.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

The number of scans N n necessary to meet all criteria for line identification versus the probability of event in each interval of number of scans for different signal/noise ratios, G. The graph in inset shows the number of scans needed for at least 90% of the cases to meet the criteria (depending on the initial G value and linewidth).

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

(a) Examples of pre-processed absorption lines; (b) “as is” summation of all 40 scans, starting from the same turn point of each scan; and (c) summation of all 40 scans with “floating” middle point of each line profile.

Image of FIG. 11.
FIG. 11.

Photo of the single-frequency laser with a nano-selector.

Image of FIG. 12.
FIG. 12.

(a) The beating signal oscillograms for linear laser output tuning (solid line), and with additional cosine modulated rate of tuning (dashed line). (b) The beating signal oscillogram at 5 Hz laser modulation rate and 11.5 mm space between the rangefinder probe and an obstacle.


Generic image for table
Table I.

The ratios of integrated line intensities.


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Scitation: Robotic reconnaissance platform. I. Spectroscopic instruments with rangefinders