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Local raster scanning for high-speed imaging of biopolymers in atomic force microscopy
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10.1063/1.3600558
/content/aip/journal/rsi/82/6/10.1063/1.3600558
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/rsi/82/6/10.1063/1.3600558
View: Figures

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Block diagram of the local raster-scan control loop. Driven by the data acquired by the AFM, the detector block determines the current position of the sample in the scan. These positions are used by the estimator block to determine the geometric parameters driving the spatial evolution of the path of the sample. After filtering, these values are fed to the tip trajectory block which estimates the evolution of the sample and, from that, the desired trajectory of the tip.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Illustration of a typical local raster scanning trajectory. The underlying image is a portion of the height data from a standard raster-scan of DNA using a commercial AFM system. The tip trajectory (sinusoidal segments) is driven by the estimation of the evolution of the edge of the DNA sample (short line segments).

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Bode plot of the piezo dynamics (solid line with resonant peak in the magnitude), the PID controller (dashed line with a notch in the magnitude), and the closed loop system (solid line with no resonant peak) used in the simulation. The closed loop bandwidth was over 50 kHz.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Sample profile used in the simulator.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Simulation result of local raster ((a)–(c)) and raster-scan (d) on a sinusoidal test curve. Image (b) clearly indicates that the local raster-scan kept the tip in the vicinity of the sample. The tip speed in both images was set to 20.0 μm/s. The local raster-scan took 0.785 s while the raster-scan took 16.2 s (∼21 times longer).

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Simulation result of local raster ((a)–(c)) and raster-scan (d) on a flower test curve. Image (b) clearly indicates that the local raster-scan kept the tip in the vicinity of the sample. The tip speed in both images was set to 20.0 μm/s. The local raster-scan took 1.25 s while the raster-scan took 16.2 s (∼13 times longer).

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Sample profile used to generate height measurements to drive the local raster-scan algorithm on the nanopositioning stage.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

Bode plot of the close loop response for the two axis of our nano-positioning stage.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

Experimental result of the local raster- ((a)–(c)) and raster-scan (d) on a sinusoidal test curve. As in the simulation results, the algorithm tracked the sample, reducing image time by reducing the image area. The tip speed for both scans was set to 6.5 μm/s. The local raster-scan took 2.57 s while the raster-scan took 49.2 s.

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

Experimental result of the local raster- ((a)–(c)) and raster-scan (d) on a flower test curve. As in the simulation results, the algorithm tracked the sample, reducing image time by reducing the image area. The tip speed for both scans was set to 6.5 μm/s. The local raster-scan took 2.75 s while the raster-scan took 19.7 s.

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/content/aip/journal/rsi/82/6/10.1063/1.3600558
2011-06-21
2014-04-20
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Local raster scanning for high-speed imaging of biopolymers in atomic force microscopy
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/rsi/82/6/10.1063/1.3600558
10.1063/1.3600558
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