Process of single-crystal copper (SCC) growth using the Czochralski method.
(a) Electric discharge machining (EDM) process and (b) x-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern obtained for pieces fabricated from SCC using the EDM process.
SCC components for Hall measurements made by the wire-EDM method.
(a) SCC disk and (b) wires fabricated from the disk using the wire-EDM process (Ref. 9).
Complete Hall effect measurement kit with SCC components. (a) Elimination of the electrode of the printed circuit board (PCB) made of coarse copper; (b) part of the measurement probes using SCC; (c) front part of the measurement kit made using SCC; (d) rear part of the measurement kit made using SCC wire (the solder at the corners of the right side was used only for fixing the pins; the wires and components made of SCC were ultrasonically welded together).
Carrier density (n) and mobility (μ) of ITO thin film measured using the conventional Hall effect measurement kit and the SCC kit.
(a) Carrier concentration (top) and (b) mobility (bottom) measured at low current density values for various samples: ITO, ZnO, ZnCoO:H, p-type ZMO (all thin film samples), and bulk n-Si substrate.
Standard deviation of Hall effect measurement values.
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