TEM image of the human corneal cell.
A schematic picture of the proposed laserless cellular surface imaging platform.
A lumped-parameters model of the microcantilever.
A distributed-parameters model of the piezoresistive microcantilever (microcantilever's bending calculation for determining the tip displacement).
Frequency response (amplitude and phase) of the distributed system in response to the variation of the sample stiffness coefficient (k s ).
Frequency response (amplitude and phase) of the distributed system in response to the variation of the sample damping coefficient (c s ).
Attachment of the sample to the force sensor's tip.40
Experimental setup of the MM3A® with the FMS-EM force sensing module.
Front and back view of the force measurement system (FMS), FMS plug-in holder (bottom left), and FMS adaptor (bottom right).
Circuit of the force measurement system.41
Voltage-displacement calibration curve.
Dehydrated corneal cell for the purpose of surface imaging.
Open-loop discrete control for the cellular surface imaging using MM3A®.
Nanotopography imaging of the human corneal cell above its nucleus.
(a)–(h) Different experimental measurements of the height of the corneal cell.
(a)–(c) Height of the corneal cell above its nucleus under three different experimental measurements.
Experimental frequency spectrum of the piezoresistive microcantilever: (a) amplitude and (b) phase.
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