Schematics of the vacuum-integrated electrospray deposition system.
(a) Averaged ionic current of several solutions versus the solution injection speed. (b) Film thickness versus accumulated ionic current, which is the sum of the ionic current during the deposition with the optimized condition of 11 mg/ml concentration and 5 μl/s solution injection speed.
Measured J-V characteristics of OPVCs by changing the concentration of P3HT:PCBM solution with a fixed solution injection speed of 5 μl/s Inset: film thickness versus solution concentration.
Measured J-V characteristics of OPVCs by changing the solution injection speed of P3HT:PCBM solution by 3, 5, 6, and 8 μl/s with a fixed concentration of 11 mg/ml.
Cross-sectional SEM image of the electrospray-fabricated OPVC.
Measured J-V characteristics of electrospray devices intentionally exposed to oxygen or air with 25% humidity before the deposition of final cathode.
Measured OPVCs parameters with various conditions.
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