Calculated Bode plots of (a) gain and (b) phase-shift imparted by each stage, and their cumulative effect, for the five-stage design in Fig. 2, using ideal components.
Five-stage phase-shifter. For simplicity, only the components of the first stage have been labeled.
(Eq. (17)) as a function of x = ω/ω c , for several values of a..
(a) Phase non-uniformity (defined as standard deviation of Δϕ, divided by its mean over the band of interest) and (b) bandwidth (defined as (ω cn −ω c 1)/2π) of an n stage shifter, as a function of the multiplier m = ω c, j+1/ωcj.
Bode plots for two-stage amplifier applying negative phase-shift θ = −34 ± 4° in the range f = 55–2000 Hz.
Calculated and measured Bode plots of cumulative (a) gain and (b) phase-shift for the five-stage design in Fig. 2, using realistic components.
Measured (a) gain and (b) phase-shift introduced by a five-stage phase-shifter of adjustable gain, where R 1 of stage 1 (Fig. 2) was optimized at every f for flat gain. Both flat and phase are flat over a band broader than 0.07–10 kHz. Calculations at fixed R 1 are also shown for comparison.
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