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A fast real time measurement system to track in and out of plane optical retardation/ birefringence, true stress, and true strain during biaxial stretching of polymer films
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10.1063/1.4768531
/content/aip/journal/rsi/83/12/10.1063/1.4768531
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/rsi/83/12/10.1063/1.4768531
View: Figures

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Most common stretching protocols practiced in the film industry.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Cross and parallel polarized light spectra.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Determining retardation from peak points on the normalized intensities curve.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Fitting a curve on the actual data and obtaining the retardation.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Biaxial stretching machine and spectral birefringence system.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Biaxial stretching machine and spectral birefringence system-side view.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

(a) Bottom of the instrument showing light source and optical train, (b) view looking up showing sample, camera, and fiber optic detection. The analyzers are mounted on the holder.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

Dot pattern for tracking the X and Y deformations.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

(a) X and (b) Y-load cell calibration. The clip location for the load cell is shown on the inset in (a). Both axes have load cells at the mid clip.

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

Thickness measurements validation.

Image of FIG. 11.
FIG. 11.

(a) Y-stretch ratio, (b) X stretch ratio validation.

Image of FIG. 12.
FIG. 12.

Relationship between on-line and off-line measurements for Δn12.

Image of FIG. 13.
FIG. 13.

Relationship between on-line and off-line measurements for Δn23.

Image of FIG. 14.
FIG. 14.

Relationship between on-line and off-line measurements for Δn13.

Image of FIG. 15.
FIG. 15.

Stress vs birefringence behavior of sequential biaxially stretched PET from amorphous precursors.Δn12 vs σ12, Δn13 vs σ11, Δn23 vs σ22 (1=MD, 2=TD, 3=ND) ( stretching temperature 90 °C).

Image of FIG. 16.
FIG. 16.

Stress vs birefringence behavior of simultaneous biaxially stretched PET from amorphous precursors.Δn23vs σ22, (1=MD, 2=TD, 3=ND) and crystallinities obtained of samples captured at indicated locations (stretching temperature 90 °C).

Image of FIG. 17.
FIG. 17.

Preprogrammed deformation profiles for each of the motor drives.

Image of FIG. 18.
FIG. 18.

Stress vs. birefringence behavior of uniaxial constrained width stretching data for PET film from amorphous precursors.Δn12vs σ1122, (1 = MD, 2 = TD, 3 = ND) and crystallinities obtained of samples captured at indicated locations (stretching temperature 90 °C).

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/content/aip/journal/rsi/83/12/10.1063/1.4768531
2012-12-05
2014-04-19
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: A fast real time measurement system to track in and out of plane optical retardation/ birefringence, true stress, and true strain during biaxial stretching of polymer films
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/rsi/83/12/10.1063/1.4768531
10.1063/1.4768531
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