The virtual cathode, standard sheath, presheath, and plasma regions.
Sheath potentials for H− emission current density of 175, 200, and 250 Am−2.
The transported current density and virtual cathode depth.
The transported current density as the cathode potential changes for emission current densities of 300 and 600 Am−2.
The virtual cathode depth as the cathode potential changes for emission current densities of 300 and 600 Am−2.
Comparison between measurements of the (a) electron density and (b) the negative ion density and the sheath model.
The calculated (a) virtual cathode depth and (b) transmitted negative ion flux across the sheath.
The effect of fast positive ions on the transported negative ion flux.
The effect of fast positive ions on the depth and onset of the virtual cathode.
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