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Invited Review Article: The statistical modeling of atomic clocks and the design of time scales
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1.D. D. McCarthy and P. Kenneth Seidelmann, Time: From Earth Rotation to Atomic Physics (Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, Germany, 2009), Chaps. 1 and 2;
1.See also J. Jesperson and J. Fitz-Randolph, From Sundials to Atomic Clocks—Understanding Time and Frequency (Dover, Mineola, New York, 1999).
2.E. M. Reingold and N. Dershowitz (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England, 2001).
6.Resolution 9 of the 13th Coférence Générale des Poids et Mesures (CGPM), 1960. Sèvres, France, The International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM).
7.W. M. Itano, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, D. J. Wineland, D. Hume, C. W. Chou, S. R. Jefferts, T. P. Heavner, T. E. Parker, S. A. Diddams, and T. Fortier, in Proceedings 2009 ICOLS Conference (World Scientific, Hackensack, New Jersey, 2009), pp. 117–124; Also available on the web from publications database at tf.nist.gov, paper 2391.
9. S. R. Stein, Chapter 12 in Precision Frequency Control (Academic, New York, 1985);
9.Reprinted in NIST Technical Note 1337, edited by D. B. Sullivan, D. W. Allan, D. A. Howe, and F. L. Walls, Boulder, Colorado, NIST, 1990.
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12. S. Stein, D. Glaze, J. Levine, J. Gray, D. Hilliard, and D. Howe, in Proceedings of 36th Annual Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, Piscataway, NJ, 1982);
12.Reprinted in NIST Technical Note 1337, S. Stein, D. Glaze, J. Levine, J. Gray, D. Hilliard, and D. Howe, edited by D. B. Sullivan, D. W. Allan, D. A. Howe, and F. L. Walls, Boulder, Colorado, NIST, 1990. Available on the web from publications database at tf.nist.gov, paper 610.;
12.NIST publications database paper 599.
13.S. Romisch, T. E. Parker, and S. R. Jefferts, in Proceedings of 2009 Precise Time and Time Interval Planning and Applications Meeting (US Naval Observatory, Washington, DC, 2009), pp. 397–408; Also available on the web from NIST publications database as paper 2442.
The Circular T is published monthly and is available from www.bipm.org
BIPM Annual Report on Time Activities, Vol. 4, 2009
. Available from www.bipm.org
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(1988). Available at www.bipm.org
. See also the next reference.
18. G. Panfilo, A. Harmegnies, and L. Tisserand, in Proceedings of 2011 Joint European Time and Frequency Forum and International Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, Piscataway, NJ, 2011), pp. 850–855.
18.G. Panfilo and E. F. Arias, in Proceedings of 2009 Joint European Time and Frequency Forum and International Frequency Control Symposium, Besancon, France, 2009, pp. 110–115.
20. G. Petit, Metrologia 40, S252 (2003).;
See also J. Azoubib
, in Proceedings of 32nd Annual Precise Time and Time Interval Planning and Applications Meeting, Reston, Virginia, 28-30 November 2000
, (US Naval Observatory
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25. S. R. Stein, in Proceedings of the 24th Precise Time and Time Interval Planning and Applications Meeting, 1992, pp. 289–302.;
25.NASA Conference publication 3218, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771. See also U.S. patent 5,155,695 and 5,315,566.
26.K. R. Brown Jr., in Proc. of the 4th International Technical Meeting of the Satellite Division of The Institute of Navigation, 1991 (Institute of Navigation, Manassas, Virginia, 1991), pp. 223–242.
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29.M. A. Weiss and T. P. Weissert, in Proceedings of 7th European Time and Frequency Forum, Neuchatel, Switzerland, 1993 (Swiss Foundation for Research, Neuchatel, Switzerland). Also available on the web from NIST publications data base at tf.nist.gov, paper 1022.
31.D. L. Mills, Computer Network Time Synchronization: The Network Time Protocol (CRC, New York, 2011).
, T. E. Parker
, J. Achkar
, A. Bauch
, L. Lorini
, D. Matsakis
, D. Piester
, and D. G. Rovera
, in Proceedings of 41st Annual Precise Time and Time Interval Planning and Applications Meeting
, 2009 (US Naval Observatory
, Washington, DC
), available online at www.pttimeeting.org
. Also available on the web from the NIST publications data base at tf.nist.gov, paper 2432.
34.J. Levine, IEEE Trans. UFFC 46, 888 (1999).
35.A. Gelb, op. cit., Eqs. (3.8)–(21), p. 82.
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I will show how the statistical models that are used to describe the performance of atomic clocks are derived from their internal design. These statistical models form the basis for time scales, which are used to define international time scales such as International Atomic Time and Coordinated Universal Time. These international time scales are realized by ensembles of clocks at national laboratories such as the National Institute of Standards and Technology, and I will describe how ensembles of atomic clocks are characterized and managed.
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