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Invited Review Article: The statistical modeling of atomic clocks and the design of time scales
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1.D. D. McCarthy and P. Kenneth Seidelmann, Time: From Earth Rotation to Atomic Physics (Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, Germany, 2009), Chaps. 1 and 2;
1.See also J. Jesperson and J. Fitz-Randolph, From Sundials to Atomic Clocks—Understanding Time and Frequency (Dover, Mineola, New York, 1999).
2.E. M. Reingold and N. Dershowitz (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England, 2001).
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9.Reprinted in NIST Technical Note 1337, edited by D. B. Sullivan, D. W. Allan, D. A. Howe, and F. L. Walls, Boulder, Colorado, NIST, 1990.
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12.NIST publications database paper 599.
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The Circular T is published monthly and is available from www.bipm.org
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. See also the next reference.
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31.D. L. Mills, Computer Network Time Synchronization: The Network Time Protocol (CRC, New York, 2011).
, T. E. Parker
, J. Achkar
, A. Bauch
, L. Lorini
, D. Matsakis
, D. Piester
, and D. G. Rovera
, in Proceedings of 41st Annual Precise Time and Time Interval Planning and Applications Meeting
, 2009 (US Naval Observatory
, Washington, DC
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. Also available on the web from the NIST publications data base at tf.nist.gov, paper 2432.
34.J. Levine, IEEE Trans. UFFC 46, 888 (1999).
35.A. Gelb, op. cit., Eqs. (3.8)–(21), p. 82.
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I will show how the statistical models that are used to describe the performance of atomic clocks are derived from their internal design. These statistical models form the basis for time scales, which are used to define international time scales such as International Atomic Time and Coordinated Universal Time. These international time scales are realized by ensembles of clocks at national laboratories such as the National Institute of Standards and Technology, and I will describe how ensembles of atomic clocks are characterized and managed.
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