Segmented transient acquisition for test liquids with 3.5-mm flat termination (four of 12 segments shown).
TDR Smith charts for (a) increasing sample permittivity/loss (b) increasing sample conductivity. Frequency markers are shown in GHz.
TDR Smith charts compared with (a) VNA measurement and (b) HFSS simulation. Frequency markers are shown in GHz.
TDR sensors for (a) 3.5-mm pin termination and (b) 9-mm flat termination.
Effect of sample boundary reflections and castle-nut shield on (a) Smith chart showing ∼1 GHz resonance, (b) direct transient showing ∼1 ns signal difference with sensor repositioning and its removal after introduction of the castle nut shield.
Effect of varying pin length for 3.5-mm sensor and comparison with HFSS simulation for (a) 0.0-mm pin, (b) 0.4-mm pin, (c) and 1.0-mm pin. (d) Variation in TDR traces for water and correction to absolute reflection coefficient.
Effect of pin length and castle-nut shield on bilinear parameters (a) B′, (b) 1 / |1-Bρ|, and calibrated permittivity (c) ɛ′ and d) ɛ″ (3.5-mm sensor in 40% water/acetone solution).
Effect of terminating plug thickness and castle-nut shield on 9-mm flat termination in water. (a) 6.3 vs. 2.5-mm plug without castle-nut shield, (b) 6.3-mm plug with/without castle-nut shield, (c) 2.5-mm plug without castle-nut shield compared with VNA, (d) 6.3-mm plug without castle-nut shield compared with VNA, and (e) 6.3-mm plug with castle-nut shield compared with VNA.
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