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A three-lead, programmable, and microcontroller-based electrocardiogram generator with frequency domain characteristics of heart rate variability
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10.1063/1.3693278
/content/aip/journal/rsi/83/4/10.1063/1.3693278
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/rsi/83/4/10.1063/1.3693278

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Synthetic ECG signals generated using (a) the second-order Runge-Kutta method to calculate Eq. (1) or (b) the second-order Runge-Kutta method to calculate Eq. (2). (c) A plot of absolute errors comparing the differences between (a) and (b).

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Very low frequency (VLF), low frequency (LF), and high frequency (HF) spectral components are distinguishable in a single short-term HRV spectrum.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Schematic of the hardware architecture of the synthetic ECG generator.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

The GUI control panel for the synthetic ECG generator.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

A comparison of the calculation time for three different algorithm modes. Mode A uses the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method to calculate Eq. (1). Mode B uses the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method to calculate Eq. (2). Mode C uses the second-order Runge-Kutta method to calculate Eq. (2).

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Ten seconds of ECG signal generated from the synthetic ECG generator. (a) Lead I, (b) lead II, and (c) lead III.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Comparison of the actual heart rate and the heart rate generated by the synthetic ECG generator via the calculation of Eq. (2) by the second-order Runge-Kutta method.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

(a) The HRV spectrum simulated using MATLAB, TP = 1173 ms2. (b) The RR-interval data computed via IFFT from Fig. 9(a); the average RR-interval is 833.7 ms. (c) The HRV spectrum calculated from Fig. 9(d), TP = 1172 ms2. (d) The RR-interval data acquired by using the Pan-Tompkins algorithm to calculate a 5-min ECG signal with the synthetic ECG generator; the average RR-interval is 831.8 ms.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

Comparison of the difference in the RR-interval and the mean RR-interval for the synthetic ECG generator. The average value of the absolute difference is 1.91 ms at a 95% confidence interval of 5.13–1.31 ms. The solid line represents the average value of the absolute difference. The dotted line represents an agreement of 95%.

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

The results of the average value for the absolute differences between the simulation and the ECG generator for mean HR ranging from 20 to 139 BPM.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table I.

The parameters of the modified model for the synthetic ECG generator.

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/content/aip/journal/rsi/83/4/10.1063/1.3693278
2012-04-09
2014-04-18
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: A three-lead, programmable, and microcontroller-based electrocardiogram generator with frequency domain characteristics of heart rate variability
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/rsi/83/4/10.1063/1.3693278
10.1063/1.3693278
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