Response of PIN photodiode (S3950-09, Hamamatsu Photonics Co. Ltd. Japan) to irradiation of a pulsed laser (Legend Elite USP-HE, Coherent, Inc., CA, USA, wavelength of 800 nm, duration ∼100 fs, repetition rate 1 kHz, beam size 5 mm in diameter). The photodiode was reverse biased at 24 V. Signal waveforms in regions A, B, and C are shown in the upper panel (a), (b), and (c). The relationships between the output charges estimated from the waveforms and the incident pulse energies are shown in the lower panel (d).
A simplified schematic of the front-end electronics.
Block diagram of the signal processing system of the photodiode amplifier.
Relationship between directly and indirectly measured XFEL pulse intensities. The beam energy is 9.87 keV at peak. Beam size is limited to 1 mm × 1 mm by a front end slit.
Relationship between directly measured XFEL pulse intensities and pulse energies.
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