Flow chart of non-Guassian surface generation. Here, Ssk and Sku are the designed skewness and kurtosis, respectively. Ssk ′ and Sku ′ are the modified skewness and kurtosis. ACF denotes the autocorrelation function.
Typical results of the general rough surface simulation method.
Schematic illustration of the genetic algorithm based optimal design method.
Typical results of optimal design. (a) Tracked relative error during the iteration. (b) Variation tendency of the parameters during the iteration.
One optimized surface. (a) Topography. (b) Corresponding grayscale bitmap.
Results of the fabricated specimen. (a) Scanning electron microscope image under 45° tilt. (b) Atomic force microscope image. (c) Comparisons of the sectional profiles between the designed and measured surfaces along the arrows indicated in (b).
Parameters used in the optimal design of 3D rough surfaces.
Comparisons of surface parameters.
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