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Invited Review Article: Combining scanning probe microscopy with optical spectroscopy for applications in biology and materials science
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10.1063/1.4720102
/content/aip/journal/rsi/83/6/10.1063/1.4720102
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/rsi/83/6/10.1063/1.4720102
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Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Imaging with higher harmonics in tapping-mode atomic-force microscopy. (a) Topography, (b) control error, and (c)-(e) 3rd, 5th, and 8th harmonic images of a Pt–C film deposited on a glass substrate. The fundamental frequency f is 52.2 kHz. Reprinted with permission from Stark and Heckl, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 5111 (2003). Copyright © 2003 American Institute of Physics.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Friction force microscopy on carbon nanotubes. (a) Topography AFM image. (b), (c) Friction images of the highlighted longitudinal (b) and transverse (c) sections of the nanotube. The fast scanning direction of the AFM tip is indicated by an arrow. In (d), (e), the black solid line is the topography profile along the white solid lines in (b), (c); the green solid line is the average friction force profile inside the area delimited by the dotted line in (b), (c). Reprinted by permission from Lucas et al., Nat. Mater. 8, 876 (2009). Copyright © 2009 Macmillan Publishers Ltd.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Chemical imaging with atomic resolution. (a) Topography image of an assembly of Si, Sn, and Pb atoms on a Si(111) substrate. (b) Height distribution of the atoms in (a). (c) Local chemical composition of the image in (a). The Pb, Sn, and Si atoms are highlighted in green, blue, and red, respectively. (d) Distribution of maximum attractive total forces measured over the atoms in (a). Image dimensions are 4.3 × 4.3 nm2. Reprinted by permission from Sugimoto et al., Nature (London) 446, 64 (2007). Copyright © 2007 Macmillan Publishers Ltd.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Scanning tunneling hydrogen microscopy (STHM) images of 3,4,9,10-perylene-tetracarboxylic-dianhydride (PTCDA) on Au(111). (a) Structure model, molecular orientation, molecular quadrupole moment, and the unit cell of PTCDA. (b) Conventional STM image in constant height mode. (c) STHM image. (d) Superposition of (c) with the structure in (a). White lines mark possible hydrogen bonds. Image dimensions are 25 × 25 Å2. Reprinted with permission from Weiss et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132, 11864 (2010). Copyright © 2010 American Chemical Society.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Energy diagram of electronic transitions involved in different types of vibrational spectroscopy. For coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy, ω P indicates the pump laser frequency, and ω S the Stokes laser frequency.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Frequency modulation coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (FMCARS) images of (a) cellulose (1100 cm−1) and (b) lignin (1600 cm−1) in a corn leaf. (c), (d) Depth profiles of (c) cellulose and (d) lignin are along the dotted lines in (a) and (b). The scale bar is 10 μm. (e) FMCARS spectra at the positions labeled A and B in (a) and (b). Reprinted with permission from Chen et al., J. Phys. Chem. B 114, 16871 (2010). Copyright © 2010 American Chemical Society.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

SERS activity of Au/Ag core-shell nanoparticles and heterodimers. (a) AFM topography images of the synthesis products. Image dimensions are 1 × 1 μm2. (b) SERS spectra collected from the corresponding nanostructures. (c) Raman spectra of Cy3-modified oligonucleotides (red/upper line) and Cy3-free oligonucleotides (black/lower line) in NaCl-aggregated silver colloids. Reprinted by permission from Lim et al., Nat. Mater. 9, 60 (2010). Copyright © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Ltd.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

Schematic of a parabolic mirror focusing a radially polarized laser beam onto the apex of a gold tip. Reprinted with permission from Zhang et al., J. Raman Spectrosc. 40, 1371 (2009). Copyright © 2009 John Wiley.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

Side-illumination of an AFM tip. The Raman signal is collected through the same objective, which is at an angle of 65° with respect to the tip axis. Reprinted with permission from Mehtani et al., J. Raman Spectrosc. 36, 1068 (2005). Copyright © 2005 John Wiley.

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

Top-illumination of an angled tip on the sample surface. Reprinted with permission from Stadler et al., Nano Lett. 10, 4514 (2010). Copyright © 2010 American Chemical Society.

Image of FIG. 11.
FIG. 11.

Schematics of tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy systems with (a) side-illumination and (b) focused evanescent field illumination. Reprinted with permission from Hayazawa et al., J. Appl. Phys. 92, 6983 (2002). Copyright © 2002 American Institute of Physics.

Image of FIG. 12.
FIG. 12.

(a) SEM image and (b) schematic of a tungsten cantilever with an aperture milled by focused ion beam. Reprinted with permission from Mai et al., J. Raman Spectrosc. 39, 435 (2008). Copyright © 2008 John Wiley.

Image of FIG. 13.
FIG. 13.

Tip-enhanced Raman spectra of brilliant cresyl blue with the tip (a) retracted and (b) in contact with the sample. (c)-(e) Series of 25 Raman spectra across a sample boundary indicated in (c), with the tip (d) retracted and (e) in contact with the sample. Reprinted with permission from Stöckle et al., Chem. Phys. Lett. 318, 131 (2000). Copyright © 2000 Elsevier.

Image of FIG. 14.
FIG. 14.

Schematic of the dual-gating photon counting scheme for a tip-enhanced Raman system using tapping-mode AFM. Reprinted with permission from Yano et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 121101 (2007). Copyright © 2007 American Institute of Physics.

Image of FIG. 15.
FIG. 15.

(a) The tip and sample are illuminated only for a predecided tip-sample distance. (b) Schematic of the sinusoidal oscillation of the tip and the synchronized opening of the time gate. (c) Schematic of the tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy system using a tapping-mode AFM and acousto-optic modulator for time-gated illumination. Reprinted with permission from Ichimura et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 186101 (2009). Copyright © 2009 American Physical Society.

Image of FIG. 16.
FIG. 16.

Normalized TERS intensity of coadsorbed guanine and ClO4 and background intensity at different tip-sample distances. The inset is a scanning electron microscope image of the STM tip. The TERS data were collected at different tip retraction velocities: 1.6 nm/s (squares), 0.32 nm/s (triangles), 0.16 nm/s (circles). Reprinted with permission from Pettinger et al., Phys. Rev. B 76, 113409 (2007). Copyright © 2007 American Physical Society.

Image of FIG. 17.
FIG. 17.

Tip-sample distance dependence of near-field scattered light for three tips with radii of curvature of about 20 nm (top), 12 nm (middle), and smaller than 5 nm (bottom). Reprinted with permission from Raschke and Lienau, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5089 (2003). Copyright © 2003 American Institute of Physics.

Image of FIG. 18.
FIG. 18.

(a) Time series of tip-enhanced Raman spectra for a submonolayer of malachite green dye. (b) Temporal variation of the intensities of the integrated 1480–1630 cm−1 Raman band. The inset is a histogram of the Raman intensity distribution. Reprinted with permission from Neacsu et al., Phys. Rev. B 73, 193406 (2006). Copyright © 2006 American Physical Society.

Image of FIG. 19.
FIG. 19.

Conversion of a linearly polarized light into a pseudoradial or azimuthal polarized light with a divided half-wave plate. Reprinted with permission from Hayazawa et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6239 (2004). Copyright © 2004 American Institute of Physics.

Image of FIG. 20.
FIG. 20.

Far-field intensity (squares), near-field TERS intensity (diamonds) for a silicon substrate (520 cm−1 band), and contrast ratio (stars) as functions of the polarizer angle. The analyzer was kept perpendicular to the tip axis. Reprinted with permission from Yi et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 073706 (2008). Copyright © 2008 American Institute of Physics.

Image of FIG. 21.
FIG. 21.

SEM image of a gold-coated AFM tip (a) before and (b) after approximately 10 h of AFM imaging in tapping mode. Reprinted with permission from Nieman et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 1691 (2001). Copyright © 2001 American Institute of Physics.

Image of FIG. 22.
FIG. 22.

(Top) SEM image of a tapered waveguide on an AFM cantilever. The inset shows the whole chip with multiple silicon nitride tips. (Bottom) Magnified images of the photonic crystal cavity and waveguide with a radius of curvature of 5 nm. Reprinted by permission from De Angelis et al., Nat. Nanotechnol. 5, 67 (2010). Copyright © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Ltd.

Image of FIG. 23.
FIG. 23.

(a) Topographic image of the DNA network. (b), (c) Tip-enhanced CARS images at the (b) on-resonant frequency (1337 cm−1) and (c) off-resonant frequency (1278 cm−1). (d) Intensity line profile for the horizontal line indicated by arrows. Reprinted with permission from Ichimura et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 220801 (2004). Copyright © 2004 American Physical Society.

Image of FIG. 24.
FIG. 24.

(a), (b) Simultaneous (a) epi-fluorescence microscopy and (b) AFM imaging of live ldlA7-SRBI-eGFP CHO cells. (c) and (d) are magnified images of (a) and (b). Reprinted with permission from Madl et al., Ultramicroscopy 106, 645 (2006). Copyright © 2006 Elsevier.

Image of FIG. 25.
FIG. 25.

(a) Topography image of a CdSe/CdS rod, with a 3.9 nm core and length of 108 nm (FWHM). The inset shows the cross section marked with arrows. (b), (c) Height-sectioned near-field fluorescence (b) intensity and (c) lifetime images of the same particle with cross sections of 45 and 15 nm (FWHM), respectively, taken along the topography cross section. (d) Overlay of the lifetime image with the topography image. The peak indicates the seed location along the rod. The scalebar is 50 nm. Reprinted with permission from Yoskovitz et al., Nano Lett. 10, 3068 (2010). Copyright © 2010 American Chemical Society.

Image of FIG. 26.
FIG. 26.

Near-field infrared imaging of gold nanoparticles deposited on a SiC substrate. (a) Schematics of the experimental setup. (b) 3D optical amplitude images. Bottom row: Vertical slices of the optical signal amplitude as a function of the gap width d 0 and the horizontal particle position. Middle row: Top part of the vertical slices with enhanced contrast. Top row: Horizontal slices 1 nm above the particle (marked by dashed lines). (c) Normalized signal amplitudes of the 1080 cm−1 (blue) and 927 cm−1 (red) bands along the dashed lines in (b). Reprinted with permission from Cvitkovic et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 060801 (2006). Copyright © 2006 American Physical Society.

Image of FIG. 27.
FIG. 27.

Schematic of an AFM combined with infrared spectroscopy. The atomic force microscope tip probes the local deformation of the sample induced by a pulsed infrared laser tuned at a sample absorbing wavelength. Reprinted with permission from Dazzi et al., Ultramicroscopy 107, 1194 (2007). Copyright © 2007 Elsevier.

Image of FIG. 28.
FIG. 28.

Schematic of a combination of AFM with infrared attenuated total reflection spectroscopy. Reprinted with permission from Brucherseifer et al., Anal. Chem. 79, 8803 (2007). Copyright © 2007 American Chemical Society.

Image of FIG. 29.
FIG. 29.

TERS images of an individual carbon nanotube obtained by integrating the (a) G band, (b) G band, (c) D band, and (d) radial breathing mode. (e) AFM topography image. Reprinted with permission from Anderson et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 2533 (2005). Copyright © 2004 American Chemical Society.

Image of FIG. 30.
FIG. 30.

Background-corrected TERS spectra of (a) adenine, (b) thymine, (c) guanine, and (d) cytosine deposited on Au(111). The inset is a STM image of a thymine self-assembled monolayer on Au(111). Reprinted with permission from Domke et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 6708 (2007). Copyright © 2007 American Chemical Society.

Image of FIG. 31.
FIG. 31.

(a) Experimental setup for the modulated nanoindentation method. (b) Normal force as a function of indentation depth for a ZnO nanobelt. Reprinted with permission from Lucas et al., Nano Lett. 7, 1314 (2007). Copyright © 2007 American Chemical Society.

Image of FIG. 32.
FIG. 32.

TERS spectra of the G band of an individual single-wall carbon nanotube under the pressure applied by an AFM tip. Reprinted by permission from Yano et al., Nat. Photonics 3, 473 (2009). Copyright © 2009 Macmillan Publishers Ltd.

Image of FIG. 33.
FIG. 33.

Typical force versus deformation curves for living (green/light) and dead (blue/dark) T cells. Insets show the two types of cells upon the addition of 10 μL of 4% trypan blue solution. Dead cells turn blue under optical microscopy. Reprinted with permission from Lulevich et al., Langmuir 22, 8151 (2006). Copyright © 2006 American Chemical Society.

Image of FIG. 34.
FIG. 34.

(a) Recognition image of avidin molecules adsorbed to mica acquired with a biotin-tethered tip, prior to blocking. (b) Recognition image after blocking the tip by adding free avidin into the solution while scanning the same position. Reprinted with permission from Kienberger et al., Acc. Chem. Res. 39, 29 (2006). Copyright © 2006 American Chemical Society.

Image of FIG. 35.
FIG. 35.

Near-field infrared images of a single tobacco mosaic virus on Si. (a) Schematic and TEM image of the Pt-coated Si tip. (b) AFM topography image. (c) Near-field amplitude and (d) phase contrast images obtained by integrating different absorption bands. Reprinted with permission from Brehm et al., Nano Lett. 6, 1307 (2006). Copyright © 2006 American Chemical Society.

Image of FIG. 36.
FIG. 36.

Schematic diagram of the TERS setup in aqueous conditions. Reprinted with permission from Schmid et al., J. Raman Spectrosc. 40, 1392 (2009). Copyright © 2009 John Wiley.

Image of FIG. 37.
FIG. 37.

(a) Schematic of fluidFM showing a microchanneled cantilever chip connected to an external liquid reservoir. (b), (c) SEM images of tip apices with apertures milled by focused ion beam. The aperture can be used to dispense chemicals inside live cells after a small perforation of the cell membrane. Reprinted with permission from Meister et al., Nano Lett. 9, 2501 (2009). Copyright © 2009 American Chemical Society.

Image of FIG. 38.
FIG. 38.

Schematic of the experimental setup to characterize in situ the growth direction, defects, morphology, and mechanical properties of ZnO nanobelts. The samples are deposited on a glass slide, which is placed inside a rotating Petri dish. Reprinted with permission from Lucas et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 051904 (2009). Copyright © 2009 American Institute of Physics.

Image of FIG. 39.
FIG. 39.

(a) Polarized Raman spectra from the c and m planes of a ZnO crystal, shown in blue and green, respectively. The wurtzite structure (Zn atoms are brown, O atoms red) is also shown. (b)-(d) AFM topography images (3 × 3 μm2) of three ZnO nanobelts labeled NB1, NB2, and NB3 and corresponding polarized Raman spectra. Reprinted with permission from Lucas et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 051904 (2009). Copyright © 2009 American Institute of Physics.

Image of FIG. 40.
FIG. 40.

Spatially resolved TERS for ferroelectric domain imaging. (a) Topography image of a BaTiO3 nanorod. (b) Spectrally integrated TERS signal for ferroelectric domain imaging. (c) Line profiles along the dashed lines in (a) and (b) of TERS signal (blue) and topography (black). (d) Domain assignment based on the Raman selection rules for the TERS geometry used. Reprinted by permission from Berweger et al., Nat. Nanotechnol. 4, 496 (2009). Copyright © 2009 Macmillan Publishers Ltd.

Image of FIG. 41.
FIG. 41.

Polarized Raman-AFM results on individual ZnO nanobelts. (a), (g) AFM topography images of two ZnO nanobelts. (b), (h) typical polarized Raman spectra for different sample orientations and polarization configurations. (c)-(f), (i)-(l) Polar plots of the angular dependence of the Raman intensities. The Raman spectra in (h) exhibit peaks centered at 224 and 275 cm−1 that are characteristic of defects in the nanobelt NB B. Reprinted with permission from Lucas et al., Phys. Rev. B 81, 045415 (2010). Copyright © 2010 American Physical Society.

Image of FIG. 42.
FIG. 42.

(a) AFM topography image of an individual single-wall carbon nanotube. (b) TERS spectra at the positions 1 to 4 marked in (a). Reprinted with permission from Hartschuh et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 095503 (2003). Copyright © 2003 American Physical Society.

Image of FIG. 43.
FIG. 43.

(a) Schematic of photoconductive AFM. A laser illuminates a photovoltaic blend film through a transparent electrode and the current is collected with a metal-coated AFM tip. (b) AFM height image of an MDMO-PPV:PCBM 20:80 film spin-coated from xylenes. (c) Photocurrent map measured with zero external bias. (d) Local current-voltage data acquired at the three locations indicated in (b) and (c). Inset: Local current-voltage data without illumination showing much smaller dark currents. Reprinted with permission from Coffey et al., Nano Lett. 7, 738 (2007). Copyright © 2007 American Chemical Society.

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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Invited Review Article: Combining scanning probe microscopy with optical spectroscopy for applications in biology and materials science
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/rsi/83/6/10.1063/1.4720102
10.1063/1.4720102
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