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A multi-view time-domain non-contact diffuse optical tomography scanner with dual wavelength detection for intrinsic and fluorescence small animal imaging
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Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

System overview.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Mechanical design of the scanner which comprises 7 dual wavelength detection channels with 14 PMTs for DOT measurements and 2 cameras for measuring the subject's surface in 3D.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Photograph of the scanner. Inset: Side view with cabling.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Side view of the scanner.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Scanner top view showing the different axes and angles related to coordinate systems (CS's). The z axis, common to all CS's, comes out of the page; x W and y W refer to the x and y axes of the world coordinate system (WCS). Angles ϕD (in red) and ϕS (green) refer to the angles of rotation of the detector turntable and of the subject CS with respect to the WCS.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Optical path of the laser light before hitting the subject (not to scale – secondary reflections in the prisms are not shown).

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Optical layout of a dual-wavelength detection channel. The lenses form a condenser pair with unit magnification for each light path (excitation - green; fluorescence - blue).

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

3D CV system and surface reconstruction result. Left: System in its simplest expression with a validation shape as object. The shape (see inset) consists of precision machined spheres with known radii; it is used to validate 3D reconstruction. Center: 3D CV system integrated into the scanner. Right: Reconstructed mouse torso (back view).

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

Left: Phantom made of a glass cylinder filled with an aqueous dilution of Intralipid (illustrated with embedded fluorescent inclusions used in some experiments, see results Sec. VII A). Right: Measurement configuration for determining the absolute offset of the reference channel (Sec. VI E).

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

Left: Measured IRFs for arms of the detection channels k = 7, … , 13 pertaining to the ex wavelength (780 nm): raw data with maximum normalized to 1 shown in green. Raw data shifted to a common maximum centered at time zero solely to aid visual comparison of the IRFs shown in red. Right: Same as left, but for the fl path (830 nm, k = 0, … , 6).

Image of FIG. 11.
FIG. 11.

Left: In green, raw TPSFs for the laser excitation path (780 nm) acquired on the phantom with all channels making a measurement at the same angular position (here at 180° is shown – reference channel in magenta). In red are the same TPSFs, but denoised, and with IRFs and delays removed using the calibration data (reference in blue). Right: Same as left, but for the fluorescence path (830 nm).

Image of FIG. 12.
FIG. 12.

Uncorrected (red) and corrected (blue) EPATs for three tomographic projections acquired at 780 nm on the cylindrical phantom.

Image of FIG. 13.
FIG. 13.

Left: Contributions to a measured EPAT for the light emitted by a fluorescent inclusion. Right: Points (in red) on the oval on which the inclusion is to be found.

Image of FIG. 14.
FIG. 14.

Left: Density map of oval intersections showing the most probable locations (peaks) where inclusions are likely to be found. Right: Localization result for three inclusions.

Image of FIG. 15.
FIG. 15.

Schematic (top view) of the heterogeneous medium consisting of two concentric glass tubes filled with different concentrations of aqueous dilutions of Intralipid (outer tube: same as described in Sec. VI A; inner tube: diameter = 25 mm, wall thickness = 1 mm, height = 12 cm, both the inner and outer surface are depolished to avoid waveguiding inside the glass). The larger glass tube is always filled with a 48:1 (V/V) aqueous dilution of Intralipid.

Image of FIG. 16.
FIG. 16.

EPATs at the laser wavelength as a function of detection position: (a) Without inner smaller glass tube (whole medium consists of a homogeneous 48:1 (V/V) aqueous dilution of Intralipid). (b) Inner glass tube filled with a 48:1 (V/V) dilution of Intralipid. (c) Inner glass tube filled with a 96:1 (V/V) dilution (low concentration) of Intralipid. (d) With inner small glass tube filled with air. (e) Inner glass tube filled with a 12:1 (V/V) dilution (high concentration) of Intralipid.


Generic image for table
Table I.

Localization result corresponding to Fig. 14.


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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: A multi-view time-domain non-contact diffuse optical tomography scanner with dual wavelength detection for intrinsic and fluorescence small animal imaging