(a) Schematic of periodic heating of cantilever with serial resistor circuit and SEM picture of the cantilever used in the experiment. (b) Cantilever steady temperature, power, and resistance relation calibrated with Raman spectroscopy.
(a) Nondimensional current and its major harmonic components when the circuit is driven with a pure harmonic voltage source. (b) Nondimensional resistance oscillation, R/R m , to estimate the correction factor for the large resistance oscillation of cantilever.
Correction factor F/F V with respect to ΔR/R m for different R s /R m . (a) 2ω method with η = 0.03 and (b) 3ω method with η = 0.
Measured periodic temperature of the heated cantilever with a periodic voltage source and a maximum power of 8 mW. (a) Total circuit voltage, cantilever voltage, and cantilever resistance. (b) Cantilever resistance at different driving frequencies. (c) Maximum and minimum cantilever temperature as a function of driving frequency ω.
Amplitude and phase of V 2 ω, raw measured with either V offset = 0 (η = 0) or V offset = 0.5 V (η = 0.03). The plot also shows V 2 ω , which excludes V 2 ω, error according to Eq. (7).
Correction factor F = T raw/T cantilever for the 2ω and 3ω methods when the cantilever is operated by a periodic voltage source with power amplitude of 8 mW.
Periodic temperature for driving voltage amplitude 13.4 V and 17.9 V, estimated by oscilloscope measurement as well as the 2ω and 3ω methods.
Periodic temperature and measured voltage for (a) V 2 ω ,raw and (b) V 3 ω ,raw. The periodic temperatures were measured and corrected using F 2 ω and F 3 ω .
Dominant harmonic components and correction factor.
Procedures of 2ω and 3ω method for temperature measurement.
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